European Journal of Business and Management Research https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr European Journal of Business and Management Research EUROPA Publishing en-US European Journal of Business and Management Research 2507-1076 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript&nbsp;represents&nbsp;that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Proposed Restructuring Strategy for Sustainable Future of PT Pos Indonesia https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/384 <p>PT Pos Indonesia (Persero) as one of the oldest SOEs in Indonesia strives to survive in the 4.0 industry era. One of the efforts is by diversifying its business. However, the current strategy implemented is not in accordance with the current condition of the company. It can be seen from the performance of PT Pos Indonesia which has been getting worse from year to year and does not reach the planned company targets. The condition causes a value-reducing for PT Pos Indonesia. To identify problems in this research using external analysis, internal analysis, and SWOT analysis. This research uses qualitative methods using primary data and secondary data. The business issue of PT Pos Indonesia is the performance and sustainability of PT Pos Indonesia which is getting worse related to business units and affiliations. To find the appropriate solution for company’s problem, this research proposes a new corporate strategy by restructuring. The tool used in analyzing corporate restructuring in this research is hexagonal restructuring. Hexagonal restructuring can help company to examine constraining opportunities to value-creating by improving operations, restructuring its business, managing assets, and improving governance. The research focused on determining corporate strategies that can be proposed to be implemented. The research was expected to provide contributions for the research on hexagonal restructuring theory.</p> Ignasia Tiffani Harimukti Wandebori Copyright (c) 2020 Ignasia Tiffani, Harimukti Wandebori http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.384 Retail Marketing Of Imported Petroleum Products: Evidence From The Downstream Petroleum Sector Of The Gambia https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/365 <p>The downstream petroleum sector is a key contributor to the Gambian economy with the absence of upstream petroleum exploration. The growth of the industry is highly dependent on ensuring that imported refinery petroleum products are distributed consistently and timely to consumers through an effective and efficient supply chain system as well as adopting innovative marketing programs. This is the ideal situation yearned for by stakeholders of the sector. To this effect, this research aims to explore the perspectives of retail petroleum marketing as well as challenges of petroleum import, storage and sales in the Gambia’s downstream petroleum sector. A qualitative method was adopted for the study through in-depth interviews in a semi-questionnaire format. The study discovered that OMCs downstream marketing strategies, programs and activities shifted from undifferentiated commodity imported refinery products marketing (old/previous marketing scenario) to branded value added services differentiated petroleum products (present marketing scenario) marketing owing to increase in both downstream energy market liberalization and market competition. The study also revealed that industry players face many challenges ranging from inadequate legislation, government interference, limited fuel terminal tanks, supply chain and other operational difficulties, high import duties and lack of subsidy on imported petroleum products. The study recommends that OMCs should develop and implement marketing strategies, programs and activities in line with product differentiation, branding and value added services. This research equally recommend that the stakeholders in the industry should work on the amendments of downstream petroleum legislation, expand the fuel terminal tank storage facility, adopt and enforce national downstream petroleum quality standard in the daily operations and work towards realizing full deregulation in the sector.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Musa Manneh Copyright (c) 2020 Musa Manneh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.365 The Effect Of Intellectual Capital On The Financial Performance Of Libyan Banks https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/341 <p>This study examines intellectual capital (IC) performance of Libyan banks during the period from 2004 to 2010, using value-added intellectual coefficient (VAIC) methodology, and investigates the impact of IC on financial performance. It identifies the IC components that may be the drivers of the traditional indicators of bank success. The results of the study showed that private banks are more concerned with the components of intellectual capital compared to commercial banks and specialized banks. The results also showed that there is a positive relationship between the components of the (VAIC) and the (ROA). The study recommended that Libyan banks should add a post or position to manage intellectual capital in their organizational structures to help structure relevant strategies and policies on how to obtain, utilize and develop the best resources required for intellectual capital.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khalad M. S. Alrafadi Copyright (c) 2020 Khalad M. S. Alrafadi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.341 Compendious research of Escrow Payment - Focusing on Future Considerations, Trends and Applications https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/347 <p>The research on escrow payments given its future considerations, trends and applications indicated about it being a payment platform for the future. This can be attributed to be the result of its greater security and flexibility, in addition to the reduction of fraudulent activities. However, the digital payment systems must focus on the introduction of smartphone application, so that the consumers can make payments within a matter of minutes, rather than having them spend their valuable time on their websites to process their payments.</p> Zohaab Ishrat Copyright (c) 2020 Zohaab Ishrat http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.347 Career Development And Organizational Climate On Employee Commitment (Case Study On Bank Syariah Indonesia) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/354 <p>&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Human Resources (HR) is a very important part in PT Bank Syariah Indonesia, so that it is expected that there is an ideal and sufficient working period to optimize employee careers and increase employee commitment to the company, considering the products produced by the company are products used to facilitate the state apparatus work system and service to the wider community.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This study aims to determine the effect of variable Career Development and Organizational Climate on the commitment of Employees in PT Bank Syariah Indonesia. The method used in this study is a research mix method, which is a step of research by combining two forms of approach in research that is quantitative and qualitative. The population in this study were all employees in the Bank Syariah Indonesia as many as 53 employees</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The results showed that the career development variable (X1) and also the Organizational Climate (X2) had a positive and significant effect on the variable Employee Commitment (Y). The conclusion of the research shows that to increase the commitment of employees in PT Bank Syariah Indonesia, the company needs to improve the existing career development system and maintain the organizational climate so that it remains conducive for all employees.</span></p> Kurnia Fajar Afgani Dematria Pringgabayu Radia Purbayati Copyright (c) 2020 Kurnia Fajar Afgani, Dematria Pringgabayu, Radia Purbayati http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.354 The Impact Of Digital Economy On International Trade https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/389 <p>This article explores the role of digitalization and related technologies in today's international trade. The global economy and digitalization in international trade are growing at a rapid pace and the digital space is becoming a key area for global trade. The impact of digitalization on international trade, the impact of changes in the structure and form of international trade, the intensification of global competition and its transition to the intangible sector; the emergence of new formats and opportunities for international business through digitization, the expansion of cross-border commerce and invisible employment, and the reduction of cross-border and internal operations in a globalized digital environment; Factors such as the rapid growth of digital commerce with companies, businesses and households, the emergence of new generation science related to the regulation of commercial relations in the transboundary virtual space, the emergence of new changes in international trade regulation have been explored.</p> <p>Keywords: digital economy, digitalization, globalization, international trade, technology, supply chain, transformation, regulation, data flow, cross-border trade.</p> Ikrom Ahmedov Copyright (c) 2020 Ikrom Ahmedov http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-04 2020-07-04 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.389 Determinants of Credit Risk in the Banking Sector of Ghana: A Panel Co-integration Approach https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/377 <p>The economic development of any nation hinges on the health of its financial system. In recent years, the health of the Ghanaian Banking sector has been affected severely as a result of high levels of non-performing loans (NPLs), which has been identified as a major threat to the overall profitability and survival of banks. To minimize the impact of NPLs on the financial sector, key stakeholders such as the government, bank officials and regulators are working hard in that regard. However, any policy response aimed at dealing with the high rate of non-performing loans first requires the understanding of the underlying determinants of NPLs. Against this backdrop, this paper apply panel co-integration techniques to investigate the determinants of credit risk (NPLs) in the banking sector of Ghana. &nbsp;We use NPL as a proxy to measure credit risk and assess how it is influenced by macroeconomic and bank-specific factors. A balanced panel data of 16 universal banks in Ghana from 2010 to 2016 has been analyzed using Panel co-integration techniques such as Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS). Our result shows that growth in the economy, measured by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has significant influence on the NPLs of banks in the long-run. The results further revealed that capital adequacy, profitability and liquidity of banks are significant predictors of NPLs. However, our results suggest that bank size, inflation and interest rate have statistically insignificant influence on the NPLs of Ghanaian banks. The study recommend, among others, that whereas it is important for government and policymakers to work to improve macroeconomic outcomes, banks should also improve their capital adequacy, profitability, and efficiency position as these bank-specific interventions could significantly improve credit quality and minimize NPLs.</p> Thomas Appiah Frank Bisiw Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Appiah, Frank Bisiw http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.377 Time-Varying Conditional Co-movement between Inter-Sector Stock Returns: Evidence from Ghana Stock Market https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/378 <p>Investors generally exhibit home bias with regards to their investment destinations. To diversify their portfolio, such investors invest in different sectors within the domestic economy. However, such behaviour could be counter-productive in periods of increased co-movement of assets returns.&nbsp; In this paper, we examine the inter-sector stock return co-movement among the major sectors of the Ghanaian economy with the view to shedding some light on the nature of assets return correlations and its implications for portfolio diversification.&nbsp; A sample of 332 weekly observations of stock returns of five major sectors within the Ghanaian economy is used to undertake the analysis. Dynamic Conditional Correlation - Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (DCC-GARCH) techniques are applied to the weekly stock return series from January 2010 to June 2017. The DCC-GARCH model was estimated with correlation targeting and asymmetric DCC. We find dynamic conditional correlation among stock returns of all the sectors, implying that the correlation between the sector returns is time-varying. This result challenges the assumption of constant correlation among stock returns of different sectors in the domestic markets. We also find that the conditional correlation between returns of the various sectors ranges from 0.234 to 0.998, which indicates medium to very high interdependence among the stock returns. Based on the result of this study, we propose that fund managers and investors should not limit their diversification strategies to inter-sector investments since in periods of uncertainty, the ability of the investor to enjoy diversification benefits is seriously undermined.</p> Thomas Appiah Abednego Forson Copyright (c) 2020 Thomas Appiah, Abednego Forson http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-05 2020-07-05 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.378 The Growth Prospect and Challenges of Financing Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/350 <p>This study identifies the growth prospect of financing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in Nigeria and the challenges that constitute a hindrance to the growth of MSMEs in Nigeria. This study employed descriptive analysis, simple percentages and deductive method to describe the growth prospect of financing MSMEs and the problems experienced by the MSMEs. It was found that the growth and survival of MSMEs are still hampered by inaccessibility to funds owing to different reasons and challenges. The chief among the challenges is that financial institutions look at many MSMEs as high risk debtors without credit worthiness. The key finding of this study is that the financial support in term of loans given to MSMEs by the financial institutions has been declining continuously over the years and this hamper the growth prospect of MSMEs. The Federal Government should formulate policies that would encourage MSMEs to begin to source funds from the capital market through the introduction of the third-tier security market since there is an increasing growth in the number of MSMEs in Nigeria.</p> Bosede Olanike Awoyemi Aderonke Abisola Makanju Copyright (c) 2020 Bosede Olanike Awoyemi, Aderonke Abisola Makanju http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-11 2020-07-11 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.350 The Contribution of Compensation in the Employee Retention of the Banking Institutions in Dar es salaam, Tanzania https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/223 <p>This paper explores the influence of compensation on employee retention of the banking institutions in Tanzania. The stratified sampling technique was used to ensure representativeness of each bank category. Eleven banks were purposely selected and simple random sampling was applied to draw a sample of 370 employees. The quantitative data were collected using questionnaire and analyzed using Binary logistic regression. The results indicated that compensation is significantly influencing employee retention with a ‘p’ value of 0.001. It was further revealed that compensation attribute (fair salary) has significant influence on employee retention. The study recommends to the bank managers to develop and implement retention policies that contemplate fair salaries as this is a most valued compensation attribute. Furthermore, the bank managers need to pay great attention to right retention policies in order to improve retention of employees.</p> Amos Ephraim Hanai William Amos Pallangyo Copyright (c) 2020 Amos Ephraim Hanai, William Amos Pallangyo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-12 2020-07-12 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.223 The Mediating Effects of Customer Satisfaction in the Relationship between ATM Service Quality and Customer Loyalty – A Case Study from Bank of Kigali https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/351 <p>The current competition from both national and international markets has created a new assignment for companies to give serious consideration to providing a high quality of service to satisfy and maintain customers. This paper aimed to analyze the effects of ATM service quality on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The Bank of Kigali has been chosen as a case in this research. For this investigation, primary data was collected from 284 respondents from Bank of Kigali through a structured questionnaire. Collected data were analyzed with SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, 23.0) according to the objectives of the present research. Results of the statistical analysis indicate that the age group of 26-35 dominates with 59.2% of total respondents, with males showing dominance in terms of gender with 75% and 54.2% of respondents being graduates. The study reveals that there is a significant relationship observed between service quality and customer satisfaction, and customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. However, an insignificant relationship has been observed between service quality and customer loyalty. Therefore, the Bank of Kigali must maximize the quality of services offered to its customers through ATMs to create a good brand image and gain loyalty from users. &nbsp;</p> Alexis Nshimiyimana Copyright (c) 2020 Alexis Nshimiyimana http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-12 2020-07-12 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.351 Impact of Socio – Economic Status in Language Development of Children in Primary Schools in Mitrovica https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/370 <p>The focus of this research is to understand the impact that socio-economic status has on the linguistic development of children in primary schools in Mitrovica. The research focused on four schools in Mitrovica , primary school "Musa Hoti", P.S. "Andon Zako Çajupi", P.S."Jusuf Rexha", P.S. "Fazli Greiçevci", for pupils from 1st to 5th grade.</p> <p>The selection of schools was done in a planned manner. The sample selected for this research is 100 pupils of these four systematically selected schools. In addition to the students, the research also includes 25 randomly selected parents.</p> <p>The instrument used for the study is a questionnaire that contains questions about children's language development and questions about socio-economic status. The questions are scaled-down type with the scale, ordinal and nominal scale. The data were analyzed by the Statistical Packet of Social Sciences - SPSS 21, for which some analyzes were used: frequency analysis, regression analysis and reliability analysis.In this paper it was assumed that the high socio-economic status positively influences the linguistic development of children in elementary schools. Thus, based on the findings of the research according to the frequency analysis and regression analysis, this hypothesis is proved.</p> M. Baruti Sh. Baruti S. Baruti Copyright (c) 2020 M. Baruti, Sh. Baruti, S. Baruti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.370 Promote Safety Culture and Enhance Safety Performance through Safety Behaviour https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/405 <p>Protection of workers against harm and sicknesses is a fundamental human right, irrespective of where the individual works. Most workplace safety and health research concentrate on the industrial and formal or corporate work settings, with very little attention given to the informal sector, especially informal agriculture. The present paper investigated safety behaviour as a mediating variable in the relationship between safety culture and safety performance of rice farm worker. The study was a cross-sectional survey, involving 469 respondents (347 males and 122 females), with an average age of 45.96 years and 13.65 years of rice farming experience. The data was analysed with the Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling. The paper found safety culture to be a strong predictor of safety behaviour, and a moderate predictor of safety performance. Also, safety behaviour had a competitive partial mediating effect on the relationship between safety culture and safety performance. Contrary to expectation, safety behaviour had a positive relationship with safety performance, and safety culture was a better predictor of safety performance than safety behaviour. The results were discussed in light of the socio-cultural sub-system model and recommendation for research, practice and policy proffered.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Lebbaeus Asamani Copyright (c) 2020 Lebbaeus Asamani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.405 Problems of Base Erosion and Anti-Abuse Tax https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/44 <p>The United States (U.S.) has a new tax law known as The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 (TCJA) [1]. &nbsp;It imposes many new provisions dealing with international tax from a U.S. perspective, including several that were designed to prevent the erosion of the U.S. tax base.&nbsp; This article discusses the reasons for these new anti-base erosion provisions and explains how they work.&nbsp; It points out some of the international tax planning techniques used by U.S. and other multinational corporations to shelter income from high taxes.&nbsp; It discusses the temporary and in some cases permanent disallowance of deductions for interest expense, the disallowance of royalty expenses, and the new base erosion and anti-abuse tax (BEAT).&nbsp; This paper also presents examples and offer tax planning strategies.</p> James G. S. Yang Leonard J. Lauricella Copyright (c) 2020 James G. S. Yang, Leonard J. Lauricella http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.44 Internal Factors that Stimulates Business Startups in Southern Nigeria https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/356 <p>In the face of unpredictable business environment, epileptic power supply, unstable government policies, poor infrastructural facilities, poor market network, inadequate capital among other factors affecting the Nigerian business environment which hinders motivation and has a great limitation to the functionality and development of entrepreneurship yet businesses are still being established. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify the internal factors that motivate such entrepreneurs in starting up businesses in Southern Nigeria despite the above challenges. Using a descriptive study, seventy one entrepreneurs were investigated. Findings revealed that passion, the desire to do something pioneering and innovative, and the feeling of accomplishment were the major factors that motivate the entrepreneurs in this context. Hence, government agencies and other empowerment institutions should take note of these factors if entrepreneurship is to be fostered.</p> Christabel Divine Brownson Copyright (c) 2020 Christabel Divine Brownson http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.356 THE Determinant of Dividend Policy on Manufacturing Companies Listed on BEI https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/342 <p>This research belong to determine the factors that influence dividend policy on manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). This study uses dividend policy as the dependent variable. Meanwhile the independent variables in this study are profitability, and leverage. This is a quantitative study using secondary data types and panel data regression analysis as a method of analysis. The population in this study was 669 companies that were listed on the IDX. Samples were selected by means of purposive sampling methods which included 39 manufacturing companies in the 2016- 2018 period. Panel data regression test results with a significance level of 0.05 had explained that profitability has a significant effect on dividend policy, and leverage has no significant effect effect on dividend policy.</p> Dahlia Br Pinem Azzahra Meirizqi Louisa Tindangen P. Dewi Cahyani Copyright (c) 2020 Dahlia Br Pinem, Azzahra Meirizqi Louisa Tindangen, P. Dewi Cahyani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-13 2020-07-13 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.342 Sustainability of Health Institutions: The Impact of Service Quality and Patient Satisfaction on Loyalty https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/345 <p>Patient satisfaction is considered one of the preferred outcomes in health care as it is directly related to the re-use of health services as well as the success and sustainability of the health care facility. The purpose of this study was to examine and analyze the effect of the quality of services rendered by medical personnel on patient loyalty via the mediating influence of patient satisfaction. The study was designed using a cross-sectional questionnaire to collect data. 2372 outpatients were selected by simple random sampling. The data analysis method employed to test the hypotheses was the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that the quality of service rendered by the medical personnel has a positive association with patient satisfaction. Again, the higher the level of patient satisfaction, the higher the level of patient loyalty to medical services. Finally, the results of the indirect test supported the hypothesis that the quality of service of medical personnel has a positive effect on patient loyalty via the mediating influence of patient satisfaction.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Antoinette Asabea Addo Wenxin Wang Alex Boadi Dankyi Olivier Joseph Abban Geoffrey Bentum-Micah Copyright (c) 2020 Antoinette Asabea Addo, Wenxin Wang, Alex Boadi Dankyi, Olivier Joseph Abban, Geoffrey Bentum-Micah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-14 2020-07-14 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.345 Proposed Business Strategy for Publishing Company (Case Study: CV Gema Usaha in Solo) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/411 <p>CV Gema Usaha is a company running in book publishing industry, provides school books for junior high school, high school, and vocational school in Indonesia. For the past 3 years (2016-2018) the company has been suffering from some problems that affect the business sustainability. Looking from the internal perspectives, the company has high inventory, lacking in human resources, and high receivables which affect the business at CV Gema Usaha. This condition causes a value-reducing for the company. To be able to survive in the publishing industry, improvements need to be made to their business strategy. Business strategy improvement is proposed based on internal and external analysis. An evaluation of the business model currently applied is also carried out by analyzing the current business model canvas. This study uses qualitative methods using primary data and secondary data. The results of internal and external analysis produce SWOT analysis which is then used to propose strategic solutions in the form of TOWS matrix and new business model. The strategy proposed for the company is to adapt the integrated cost leadership and differentiation business strategy, and shift the publishing business model from a conventional publishing to a base on demand model, by implementing the long tail business model that is equipped with a multi-sided platform. This strategy is expected to solve the main problem of the company namely high inventories, low in cash, and limited human resources.</p> Nadhira Khairunnisa Harimukti Wandebori Copyright (c) 2020 Nadhira Khairunnisa, Harimukti Wandebori http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-18 2020-07-18 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.411 Review of Foreign Direct Investment in Jordan https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/408 <p>Globalization has made worldwide mobility of money extremely easy. The investors prefer to invest in places that offer attractive returns and are relatively less risky. The inflow of FDI gives developing countries access to capital that would otherwise not be available. FDI also provides much needed foreign exchange and therefore helps to adjust some of the macroeconomic imbalances in developing countries.&nbsp; Jordan is in the growth mode, but the resources available is limited and very often insufficient, hence they are also in the race to attract international investments.&nbsp; The main objectives of this study are to find out the status of Jordan as a destination for FDI, the factors that attracts FDI into Jordan, and the factors that hinder the flow of FDI into Jordan. This study is based on secondary data and covers a period of five years.&nbsp; The study analysis various determinants of FDI like market size, economic growth, infrastructure, political risk, corruption, labor market, raw materials, technological readiness, innovation, financial system, taxation, cost of capital and ease of doing business. The study reveals that Jordan’s position in the global FDI map is on the decline and most of its rankings by global agencies are dropping year after year.&nbsp;</p> Manuel Fernandez Odai Mohannad Refai Suleiman Sereen Najati Mahmoud Yaseen Copyright (c) 2020 Manuel Fernandez, Odai Mohannad Refai Suleiman, Sereen Najati Mahmoud Yaseen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-18 2020-07-18 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.408 The Post-Covid19 Pandemic Back to workplace Policies and Procedures: A Case Study with Reference to Agricultural Research Sector, Hyderabad https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/421 <p>The Government of India announced Lockdown on 22 March and continued till Mary 21, 2020.&nbsp; Subsequently the unlock down across the country started from 8 June 2020 with various states following some regulations according to the respective state conditions.&nbsp; Several industry sectors –Information Technology, Central and State Government Offices, agricultural sector, and other public sectors started functioning partially. Most of the business outlets like supermarkets, shopping malls, financial institutes both public and private are functioning at full level. Several articles published on Covid19 about how to mitigate the infection risk and several literatures available on Covid-19 protocols, enhancing the immunity. However, till today there is no published literature on Covid19 back to workplace plan policies, procedures and protocol to safeguard employees from possible infection. In this manuscript the authors proposed a phase-wise post Covid-19 work plan with reference Agricultural Research Sector, Hyderabad. The manuscript studied the aspects of employee well-being, remote working, prevention of the infection, flexibility, and suggested a framework on back to work plan with phased approach, which is effective and cause minimal disturbance in carrying our routine activities in the sector</p> KDV PRASAD Mruthyanjaya Rao Mangipudi Copyright (c) 2020 KDV PRASAD, Mruthyanjaya Rao Mangipudi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-18 2020-07-18 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.421 Competencies of Apparatus and Internal Control System Effect on The quality of Financial Statement Information and Good Governance https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/425 <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the competencies of the apparatus and internal control systems on the quality of financial statement information and good governance. The study was conducted at the Makassar City Government. The population in this study was 44 Indonesian: Regional Working Unit (SKPD) in the Makassar City Government consisting of 687 people, and a sample of 268 respondents were obtained through the Slovin formula. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using the Structural Equation Model using AMOS 18. The results found that the overall variables studied were apparatus competence and internal control systems both directly and indirectly had a positive and significant effect on the quality of financial statement information and good governance in the City Government Makassar. The dominant direct effect is the internal control system on the quality of financial statement information and good governance in the Makassar City Government. The dominant indirect effect is the internal control system through the quality of financial statement information on good governance in the Makassar City Government.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ibrahim Ahmad . Mahfudnurnajamuddin Masdar Mas’ud . Suriyanti Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim Ahmad, . Mahfudnurnajamuddin, Masdar Mas’ud, . Suriyanti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-21 2020-07-21 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.425 Informal Sector and Nigerian Economic Prospects: The Covid–19 Experience https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/397 <p>The informal sector is essential for economic growth. It is a key provider of jobs and income in emerging economies. But the crisis caused by the pandemic has had a significant impact on these economies. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of Covid-19 on the economic prospects of the informal sector of Nigeria and also proposes various strategies to support the sector. The study highlights some of the challenges facing the informal sector of Nigeria, such as institutional inadequacies, unsafe working conditions, poor enforcement and the non-participation of informal entrepreneurs in decision-making. The impact of Covid-19 is felt in different ways, which means that all the elements of total demand will be reduced. The study recommends that the government implement effective and cost-effective tax incentive packages to minimize the impact of corona virus pandemics on the informal sector. The government should also step down from paying taxes in critical areas in response to the crisis to support the informal sector and other businesses.&nbsp;</p> Nnabuife Ezimma K. Okoli Ifeanyi E. Anugwu Chika Clara Copyright (c) 2020 Nnabuife Ezimma K., Okoli Ifeanyi E., Anugwu Chika Clara http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-21 2020-07-21 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.397  Electronic Banking: an Object of Fallacy or System of Functionality Samuel Affran Abstract — Corporate managers in the banking industry have employed series of strategies to lure many customers to patronage their categories they offer for sale. One of s https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/254 <p>Corporate managers in the banking industry have employed series of strategies to lure many customers to patronage their categories they offer for sale. One of such is E-banking. These technological services are introduced by banks with the objective of providing customers with rapid services, with cost efficient. The situation tends to be different in this part of the world. Most of these services partially exist and if it fully does, it comes with unprecedented system failures. Based upon this premises this study is conducted exploratory to find out what really constitutes electronic banking from the Ghanaian perspective and also to ascertain their linkage with customer satisfaction. A total number of 200 questionnaires were administered. Cross-sectional survey was employed using questionnaire as the principal tool for the data collection. A 5-point Likert- scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5(strongly agree) was used to measure the constructs. With the aid of SPSS version 23 the data was analyzed to establish the empirical linkage of the underlying constructs. The study among other things brought to the fore three (3) determinants (Automated Teller Machine, Mobile Phone Banking, Internet or Online banking) that define e-banking from the Ghanaian perspective proving that it is a system of functionality that is established for specific strategic purpose better still because of inefficient execution it was also proven to be an object of fallacy in the sense that having it does not necessary leads to customer satisfaction. The data analysis also shows that statistically between automated teller machine and customer satisfaction there is positively very weak relationship (R^2= .181, p&lt; 0.126). Meaning holding all other variables constant, automated teller machine will cause 18.1% change in customer satisfaction. It is proven by the results that, automated teller machine not only weak in explaining the relationship but the impact is also not significant as the significant level is 0.126 which is above the standard significant value of 0.05. Meaning the automated teller machine if it is not administered efficiently and effectively will have the tendency to impact on customer’s satisfaction insignificantly. This presupposes that the automated teller machines in question were not administered efficiently and effectively. Thus this study has proven empirically that it is not a forgone conclusion that having an ATM services will automatically leads to customer satisfaction making the assertion a fallacy in Ghana thus disproving the study by Sultan and Komal (2009) claiming that having an automated teller machine services will automatically lead to customer satisfaction. The study revealed that relationship between mobile banking services and customer satisfaction is positively very weak (R^2= .170, p&lt; 0.171). This simply means that mobile services rendered by banks to their customers were seriously criticized as woefully inadequate. Thus, holding all other variables constant, mobile banking services causes 17.0 % change in customer satisfaction. This result proves that a unit change in mobile banking service will induce 17.0% change in the rate of customer satisfaction. In other words when the level of mobile banking services is improved by 1% it will lead to 17.0% increase in customer satisfaction which is quite negligible. The significance level of this outcome in reference to the study results was 0.171 which is greater than the standard value of 0.05 indicating that the variance between mobile banking services and customer satisfaction was not significant. Internet banking services were quite effective and efficient thus having positive significant impact on customer satisfaction (R^2= .211, p&lt; 0.003). But the relationship is equally weak explaining only 21.1% of customer satisfaction within the Ghanaian banking industry. The statistical understanding is that unilaterally internet banking service has the empirical tendencies to increase customer satisfaction by 21.1% if these services are improved just a percentage change. The practical connotation is that managers need to make automated teller machine more secured and very convenient spreading it across the length and breadth of the country. It should be in good function (twenty-four hours a day), accessible at all times (weekdays and weekends) and user-friendly as well. Again, managers should be proactive in sending message to customers whenever their system is malfunctioning in order to win customer trust. They should be ready to accept their mistakes and improve on customer complaint. They should avoid the rationalization of system failure which tend to put customers off serving as a catalyst for customer drifting. Again, internet connectivity should be reliable to boost mobile banking services.&nbsp; The banks should create more mobile apps for the various product categories.&nbsp; To sum up more resources should be allocated to online products since it is proven to be the only determinant significant in explaining customer satisfaction.</p> Samuel Affran Copyright (c) 2020 Samuel Affran http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-21 2020-07-21 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.254 The Impact of Organizational Factors Based on Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) Framework on Practical Levels and Characteristics of Audit Analysis and Internal Audit Performance https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/261 <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of organizational factors based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) framework on the applied levels and characteristics of audit analysis and internal audit performance. This study examined the factors that influence the use of audit analytics after applying these analyzes, as well as whether the use of audit analytics improves internal audit performance. This is a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population of the study consisted of: Certified Public Accountants working in the Audit Organization, Institutions of Public Accountants Society using Cochran formula, 150 individuals were selected as sample. Data gathering tool was a 21-item researcher-made questionnaire whose validity was confirmed by face and structural methods and the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha. Data analysis was performed using Amos 22 software and structural equation modeling method. The findings show that the complexity of information technology (IT), technology competency, managerial support and professional assistance have a positive and significant effect on the application and software level of audit analytics. The size of the organization and auditing standards have a significant and positive effect on the performance of the audited analysts. Functional auditing has a positive and significant effect on the level of (software) auditing analytics, and functional auditing and auditing analysis have a significant positive effect on internal audit performance.</p> Mehdi Moradi Ehsan Rahmani Nia Copyright (c) 2020 Mehdi Moradi, Ehsan Rahmani Nia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-21 2020-07-21 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.261 Community Banking Services and the Fight Against Poverty in Ghana: Could this be the Panacea for Sustainable Community Development? https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/291 <p>The general objective of this study was to assess the effects of a cooperative society on the livelihood of farmers in Ghana. The convenience and simple random sampling methods of data collection were used to select two hundred (200) out of two thousand and seventeen (2,017) farmers who were clients of the study institution, and four staff at the cooperative studied for the research. The major instruments that were used comprised a structured questionnaire in both cases and an interview schedule for only those farmers who were unable to read.&nbsp; The data collected were analysed using the Statistical Product and Service Solution’ version 20 (SPSS) and Microsoft excel. The findings from the research indicate that services of the cooperative have led to significant improvements in the livelihood of the farmers. The conclusion reached was that the farmers were empowered by loans which enabled them acquire farms inputs, implements and other forms of assets. On the basis of these findings, it was recommended that establishment of financial cooperatives in farming communities should be encouraged by the government, district assemblies and community leaders to enable farmers improve on their productive entrepreneurial activities in agriculture to boost rural household incomes which implicitly fights rural poverty and improves national development.</p> Ezekiel Nibenong Seudib Issifu Abdulai Amadu Copyright (c) 2020 Ezekiel Nibenong Seudib, Issifu Abdulai Amadu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.291 Analysis of The Budget Planning Process and Budget Execution Process https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/426 <p>This study aims to analyse the process of budgeting planning and budget execution. This research was conducted by the Service of the Empowerment and Protection of Children and Population Control (DPPAPP) of the DKI Jakarta Province. The method used in this research is qualitative with an ethnomethodology approach. The result of this study is that the process of planning and implementing the budget carried out by the DPPAPP, in accordance with existing procedures and regulations. However, although it has been carried out in accordance with procedures and regulations, which are fixed, there is still a suboptimal absorption of the budget, which occurs due to internal factors and external factors. The internal factors consist of human resources, while external factors consist of the auction process and regulatory changes. It is hoped that the DPPAPP can increase the competence of the human resources it possesses, especially with regards to the budget planning process and the budget execution process. These processes can be done through socializations for the human resources, with regards to the budget planning process and the budget execution process, in order to minimalize inconsistencies between budget planning and budget execution in the future. Aside from that, in order to mitigate the external factors, each work unit must identify issues that may to arise in the next budget execution.</p> Mia Alfin Dahana . Ermwati Copyright (c) 2020 Mia Alfin Dahana, . Ermwati http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.426 Analysis of Local Expenditure Determinants in Districts/ Cities in the East Java Province https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/439 <p><span lang="EN-US">This study aims to test the effect of Local Own-Source Revenue, General Allocation Fund, Special Allocation Fund, and Population Amount towards Local Expenditure. This study used all 39 districts/citie</span><span lang="IN">s</span><span lang="EN-US"> in the East Java Province as samples. The sample collection method used in this study is the saturated sample method. This study uses secondary data from the Budget Realization Report and population. The analysis method used is the double linear regression method using SPSS with a significance rate of 5% (0.05). The result of this study shows that Local Own-Source Revenue, General Allocation Fund, and Population Amount has a significant effect towards Local Expenditure. Meanwhile the Special Allocation Fund partially does not have a significant effect towards Local Expenditure. This contribution for the Local Government of the East Java Province is hoped to be able to provide information to the people regarding the importance of paying taxes, since the payment of taxes will increase the region’s Local Own-Source Revenue, and in turn promote the people’s welfare</span></p> Hapsari Nur Aziza Mahendro Sumardjo Copyright (c) 2020 Hapsari Nur Aziza, Mahendro Sumardjo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.439 The Big Five Personality Traits, Occupational Stress, and Job Satisfaction https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/410 <p>The aim of this research was to examine the relationship between Big Five Personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness), occupational stress and job satisfaction of police officers in Cyprus Police. A cross-sectional design was employed, where data was collected at a single time point. A total of 133 participants took part in the research program. The research instruments consisted of the Neo Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS). The result of the research indicated that the correlation of conscientiousness, extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness to job satisfaction were not significantly linked while neuroticism had a moderately negative correlation with job satisfaction, and it was the only statistically significant relationship. Results showed that gender had a statistically significant relationship with job satisfaction, with males reporting greater job satisfaction than females. Additionally, work stress in the police force significantly predicts job satisfaction over and above the effect of personality traits.</p> Andreas Petasis Odysseas Economides Copyright (c) 2020 Andreas Petasis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.410 Factors Influencing the Consumer’s Intention of Buying through Facebook – A Study on Dhaka City https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/380 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Now a day social media is used as a platform to not only creates relationship but also it is the powerful implements of marketing communication which is sharply changed the traditional marketing approach. This paper is based on the assumption of the influence of Facebook on changing the buying behavior of the consumer. A structured questionnaire consisting with a set of close-ended questions was developed to collect data. Data were collected from 156 respondents who have an experience of buying through Facebook. It is a causal type of research and PLS-SEM technique was used to analyze the collected data. The study identified that both security &amp; privacy has positive influence to trust and ease of use &amp; usefulness also has positive influence to build attitudes towards Facebook. Finally, trust and attitudes towards Facebook to drive the intention of buying through Facebook. </span></p> Shakila Jahan Nipa Fahmida Akter Mohammed Shakhawat Hossain Copyright (c) 2020 Shakila Jahan Nipa, Fahmida Akter, Mohammed Shakhawat Hossain http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.380 Impact of Foreign Capital Inflows on Household Savings in Pakistan https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/436 <p>This study aims to discover the impact of foreign capital inflows (FDI, RT and FA) on household savings of Pakistan. Data used in this study has been obtained from the website of State Bank of Pakistan for the period of 1981-2010. Statistical tools including multiple regressions analysis was applied for analysis. Results explain that foreign direct investment (FDI), remittances (RT) are having positive and significant impact on household saving (HS) but foreign aid (FA) is having negative and insignificant impact on household saving, so it is recommended that if a developing country like Pakistan wants to increase the household saving it should give thoughtful importance to FDI and RT than FA with respect to household savings in Pakistan.</p> Muhammad Abdullah Idrees Ayesha Khan Muhammad Arsalan Khan Muhammad Bilal Raees Muniza Syed Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Abdullah Idrees, Ayesha Khan, Muhammad Arsalan Khan, Muhammad Bilal Raees, Muniza Syed http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-22 2020-07-22 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.436 Clan Culture as Predictor of Strategy Implementation: Empirical Evidence from Professional Bodies in Kenya https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/412 <p>The study aimed at establishing clan culture effect as an agent of strategy implementation in professional bodies in Kenya. The study’s anchoring theory was Cameroon and Queen’s Competing Value Framework (CFV) supported by McKinsey 7S Framework. Positivist philosophy adopting&nbsp; descriptive correlation research design was implemented in the field. Key question was, “How does clan culture affect strategy implementation within the professional bodies registered with the Association of Professional Societies in East Africa within Kenya?” A census of all professional bodies with purposive proportionate sample of key respondents was undertaken.&nbsp;This sample involved managers of key departments involved in strategy implementation including Information Communication Technology (ICT), planning, human resources, procurement, marketing, and finance. From target sample of 168 respondents from 28 professional bodies, the study received 132 filled structured questionnaires for analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied through&nbsp; SPSS computer package using regression models to test the hypothesis&nbsp;<em>H<sub>01</sub>: There is no relationship between clan culture and strategy implementation in professional bodies in Kenya</em>.&nbsp;Findings indicated that, the coefficient for organization glue, (<em>β</em>&nbsp;= .153,&nbsp;<em>t</em>&nbsp;= 1.848,&nbsp;<em>p&lt;</em>.05) and strategic emphasis (<em>β</em>&nbsp;= .299,&nbsp;<em>t</em>&nbsp;= 3.609,&nbsp;<em>p&lt;</em>.05) which were the constructs for clan culture significantly predicted strategy implementation in professional bodies. Results led to rejection of the null hypothesis. Study findings are significant and implementable within various organizations including government,&nbsp; industry players, and academia amongst others. From the findings, the study recommends leadership and policy planners to implement clan culture as demonstrated by the most successful organizations.</p> Anne W Njagi Joseph Ngugi Kamau Charity Muraguri Copyright (c) 2020 Anne W Njagi, Joseph Ngugi Kamau, Charity Muraguri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-23 2020-07-23 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.412 The The Effect of Corporate Governance Characteristics on Publication of Financial Statements on the Indonesia Stock Exchange https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/423 <p>This study aims to analyze corporate governance towards the publication of financial statements on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The end of the financial year until the date of publication of the financial statements as a period of reporting time lag. Ownership composition, characteristics of directors and commissioners, and audit committee as a proxy for corporate governance. Proportional strata method for selecting a sample of 775 annual reports, for the period 2013-2014 from nine industry groups. Multiple regression analysis techniques, using control variables of size, performance, auditor quality, and type of industry. The results showed that ownership, board meetings, and audit committee meetings, as well as the number of commissioners and audit committees, had a significant effect on the issuance of issuers' audit reports. While the independence of directors and commissioners does not affect.spacing.</p> Suwardi Bambang Hermanto Copyright (c) 2020 Suwardi Bambang Hermanto http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.423 Interactional Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Academic Staff in Universities in Bayelsa State https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/418 <p>This study was carried out to ascertain the effect of Interactional Justice on Organizational Citizenship Behaviour of Academic Staff in Universities in Bayelsa State. Cross Sectional Research design was adopted. A sample size of 294 was obtained from a population of 1,268 workers, using Krejcie and Morgan (1970) Sample size determination table. With the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, the Spearman Rank Order Correlational Coefficient was used to analyse the data. The results obtained showed a significant positive relationship between Interactional Justice and all measures of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (Altruism, Courtesy, Conscientiousness, Civic Virtue, and Sportsmanship), indicating that workers are very helpful and assist colleagues with problems. It was recommended that management should always be polite and respectful to employees and involve them in decision making because employees perception of equity breeds extra role behaviour.</p> Tarela Oboro Okpu Gift J. Eke Copyright (c) 2020 Tarela Oboro Okpu, Gift J. Eke http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.418 Turnover Intention and Behavior Organizational Citizenship on Indonesian Hospital Case https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/434 <p>Since the last 4 years the nurse turnover rate on&nbsp; Indonesian Hospital Case has shown an increase and reached the highest number (20.8%) in 2019 for contract nurses. If not anticipated it will disrupt the quality of service and reduce hospital performance. The high turnover rate also causes hospitals to incur additional costs for recruitment and training. Meanwhile, hospitals also need a lot of time to make nurses have the skills to provide quality care and meet the Patient Safety rules. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior on nurse turnover intention in hospital industry.</p> <p>This study uses quantitative methods, to determine the causality relationship between related variables. Data processing is done quantitatively using SEM statistical test methods, to prove the hypothesis. The research sample was saturated with 282 nurses, both organic and contract, conducted since November 2019 until January 2020. Data processing is done quantitatively using the SEM statistical test method, to prove the hypothesis. Research findings: increasing OCB is an important thing to do by Indonesian Hospital Case management, because OCB is proven to increase the effect of job satisfaction in order to reduce nurse turnover intention. The voluntary attitude of nurses is the lowest OCB behavior in contract and organic nurses, so efforts are needed to improve voluntary behavior so that nurse turnover intention can be significantly increased.</p> <p>The results showed nurse turnover Intention was influenced by Job Satisfaction and OCB. The indirect effect through OCB is 1.43 times greater than the direct effect of Job Satisfaction on Turnover Intention. Perceptions of turnover intention for contract nurses are moderate, organic is low, job satisfaction is moderate (organic nurses are more satisfied than contract nurses), and OCB is high (organic nurses are higher than contract nurses).</p> Rina Susanti . Hasyim Kemala Rita Copyright (c) 2020 Rina Susanti, . Hasyim, Kemala Rita http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.434 Project Design and Sustainability of Dairy Goat Projects for Livelihood Improvement in Kenya https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/361 <p>The debate around sustainability of development projects is intriguing, emerging as a contemporary development paradigm. Nevertheless, empirical literature insinuates that sustainability of development projects is seldom realized. Perhaps because the sustainability drivers are not well articulated at the project design stage making sustainability uncertain. This paper calls for a decisive paradigm shift in dairy goat project designs for sustainability.&nbsp; The paper is based on a study conducted in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya, to investigate the influence of project design factors on the sustainability of dairy goat projects. Design factors considered for this study are the Project Beneficiary Selection Process, Community Capacity, Institutional Linkages and Project Infrastructure. The study was anchored on the structural-functional theory, diffusion of innovations theory and collective action theory. The sample size was 196 respondents sampled using sequential and stratified random sampling.&nbsp; Purposive sampling was used to sample 13 key informants. Further, six focus group discussions each with 8 participants were conducted. Questionnaires, interview guide and FGD guide were used respectively to collect data. Descriptive statistics were computed for all variables and frequencies, percentages, arithmetic mean and standard deviation. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r), simple regression, multiple regression and stepwise regression (R squared), F-tests were used to test hypotheses.&nbsp;&nbsp; Hypothesis (H<sub>0</sub>) that the combined project design factors have no significant influence on the sustainability of dairy goat projects was tested.&nbsp; Results; r = 0.389 implying a positive slope between project design and sustainability.&nbsp; R- Squared = 0.152, that 15.2% of the variation in sustainability was explained by variation in project infrastructure, community capacity, project beneficiary selection process, and institutional linkages. ANOVA indicated the model was statistically significant at (F (1,183) = 8.176) and the p-value = 0.000≤0.05, shows that there exists a positive correlation and the slope of the population regression line is not zero. therefore, H<sub>0</sub> was rejected. The study concludes that combined project design factors are critical and important in enhancing project sustainability and recommends that dairy goat project design should incorporate authentic project beneficiary selection Process, their capacities developed and the project linked to supportive institutions as well as promoting the requisite infrastructure. The study found a gap in literature on the social economic contribution of dairy goats to the community livelihoods, as a measure of sustainability and recommends further study on this area.</p> Reuben Wambua Kikwatha Dorothy Ndunge Kyalo Angeline Sabina Mulwa Raphael Ondeko Nyonje Copyright (c) 2020 Reuben Wambua Kikwatha, Dorothy Ndunge Kyalo, Angeline Sabina Mulwa, Raphael Ondeko Nyonje http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-25 2020-07-25 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.361 Flypaper Effect Analysis on Local Government Budgets in Indonesia https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/427 <p>This study aims to identify the effect of Local Own-Source Revenue, General Allocation Fund, Special Allocation Fund, Revenue Sharing Fund, Other Lawful Local Revenue, towards the Local Government Budget, as well as conduct the flypaper effect analysis. The object of this research is Districts/Cities in Indonesia. The samples used in this study consist of 472 Districts/Cities in Indonesia in the year 2018. The sampling technique used was the purposive sampling method with previously set criteria. The data used in this study is secondary data that originates from Local Government Financial Reports that are published by the Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia. The hypothesis testing used in this study is the double linear regression analysis, using SPSS program version 20 with a significance rate of 5%. The result of this study partially shows that Local Own-Source Revenue has a positive effect towards the Local Government Budget with a significance rate of 0,000, General Allocation Fund has a positive effect towards the Local Government Budget with a significance rate of&nbsp; 0,000, Special Allocation Fund has a positive effect towards the Local Government Budget with a significance rate of&nbsp; 0,000, Revenue Sharing Fund has a positive effect towards the Local Government Budget with a significance rate of&nbsp; 0,000, and Other Lawful Local Revenue has a positive effect towards the Local Government Budget with a significance rate of&nbsp; 0,000. The result of this study found the phenomenon of the flypaper effect towards Local Government Budget from the General Allocation Fund, while it was not found from the Special Allocation Fund and Revenue Sharing Fund.</p> Dina Syahrina Ermawati . Copyright (c) 2020 Dina Syahrina, Ermawati . http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.427 The Impact of Foreign Portfolio Investment and Corporate Governance on Corporate Cash Holdings: Evidence from the Leading Manufacturing Sectors in Pakistan https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/225 <p>Corporate governance plays a significant role in determining cash holdings of the corporation. The behavior of corporate manager in companies where the protection of rights of the shareholders is week leads to the problem of agency. The key aim of this study is to scrutinize the influence of foreign portfolio investment and corporate governance on corporate cash holdings. For analysis trade off theory, agency cost theory and Modern Theory of Portfolio are reviewed. The study is performed by taking 67 listed manufacturing firms in the Pakistan stock exchange for the period of 2013-2018.Chow test, Breusch-Pagan Lagrange Multiplier (LM) Test and Hausman specification test performed for data analysis. The results showed that FPI inflow has a significant and negative impact on cash holdings. In terms of corporate governance ownership concentration has a significant and negative impact on the cash holdings while board size significant and positive impact and board independence has an insignificant and positive impact on the cash holdings. This study concluded that corporate governance practices must be improved and made effective in such a way so as to attract and retain investment and also protect the shareholders rights and managers must perform in the best concern of the shareholders by investing cash in healthy projects to minimize the agency conflict.</p> Hina Gul Sajida Gul Shahid Rasheed Copyright (c) 2020 Hina Gul, Sajida Gul, Shahid Rasheed http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-28 2020-07-28 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.225 Linkage Between Self-Control, Financial Innovations and Financial Inclusion. A Moderated Mediation Analysis Across Levels of Financial Literacy (The case of owners of Microenterprise in Kenya) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/294 <p>Financial Inclusion has been conjectured as a driver of social development with benefits accruing both at micro and macro levels. Finance theory suggest that behavioral factors influence the utilization of financial services and adoption of emerging innovations and that financial has an effect on optimal usage of financial services. Studies that examines the combined effects of behavioral factors, financial innovations and financial literacy in determining the effect on utilization of financial services are scanty, yet the latter is deemed as a key driver in realization of a number of United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals (2030). The study extended prior suppositions by integrating the three variables into a novel model of moderated mediation. Thus, the linkage between self-control, which is a behavioral factor, adoption of financial innovations and utilizations of diverse everyday financial services was examined. The relationship between the three variables was further tested for the moderating effects of various levels of financial literacy of the sampled users of the financial services. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire from the randomly sampled owners/or their representatives of microenterprises in Nairobi, Kenya. The hypotheses were tested using relevant models in Process Macro [52]. The conditional indirect effects were attested, thus the conclusion that financial innovations mediates the self-control and financial inclusion relations if entrepreneurs hold sufficient levels of financial literacy. The strength of the mediated effect varied with levels of financial literacy. Implications for theory growth and policy interventions are discussed.</p> Gladys Byegon Copyright (c) 2020 Gladys Byegon http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.294 Proposed Strategy for The Development of Turbomachinery Equipment Service in Indonesia (Case Study: PT XYZ) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/406 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">PT XYZ is one of the companies in Indonesia focusing on heavy rotating equipment, repair and manufacture Not only domestically, the company also plans to expand the business internationally to other countries in South East Asia. By increasing the company’s sales revenue and expanding the market share, PT XYZ might be able to achieve the goal. However, in the sales it is found that the current operational management strategy can no longer sustain profitable and it makes the sales revenue drops for the last two years.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The purpose of this research is to find and identify the strategy of the turbomachinery equipment service business to keep on growing in Indonesia. The conceptual framework used this strategy begins with analyzing the external environment by using PESTLE, Porter’s Five Forces, and competitor analysis. After external analysis, internal analysis is done by analyzing the resources and the value chain. Later on, all of the results will be summarized with a SWOT analysis. The results reveal that the company does not have a coherent business strategy. Thus, it evokes several problems in some internal parts of the company, such as an ineffective marketing strategy and improper resource allocation.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The applied strategy in this research is the differentiation strategy. This differentiation strategy expansion will be the key to support the company’s development in the turbomachinery equipment service market in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the outcome is expected to extend PT XYZ’s market share, product development, and service development later in the future.</span></p> Sitti Annisa Mandasari Harimukti Wandebori Copyright (c) 2020 Sitti Annisa Mandasari, Harimukti Wandebori http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.406 Factors Affecting Continuance Intention of FinTech Payment among Millennials in Jakarta https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/444 <p><span lang="EN-US">The background of this research is related to a phenomenon of millennials who prefer to change their financial behavior into cashless transactions from cash-based transactions. Factors of benefits (economic benefits, seamless transactions, and convenience) and risks (financial risks, legal risks, security risks, and operational risks) experienced by millennials are examined to observe their effects on the continuance intention of financial technology (FinTech) payment. FinTech users are classified into two types, namely early adopters and late adopters. This study examines the variables of continuance intention of FinTech payment, economic benefits, seamless transactions, convenience, financial risks, legal risks, security risks, operational risks, perceived benefits, and perceived risks simultaneously and is the first to be conducted on millennials in Jakarta. The methodology used was the Structural Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square. The data were collected through questionnaires distributed to 313 respondents. The results of this research show that convenience is the most influential benefit factor towards the continuance intention of FinTech payment. Operational risks are the only factor that do not significantly affect the continuance intention of FinTech payment. The differences between the effects of benefits and risks are found in both of the user types. The implication of this research is to further understand influential factors in millennials’ decisions to use FinTech payment services.</span></p> Norma Diana Farah Margaretha Leon Copyright (c) 2020 Norma Diana, Farah Margaretha Leon http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-30 2020-07-30 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.444 The role of Human Resources in Strategy Formulation https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/417 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Corporate strategy formulation is a very important process and requires serious and careful engagement. Any mistake in the first phase of strategic management (formulation) will result in problems in the next stages such as implementation and control.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Today, organizations of different sizes, small and medium, and large, in the process of strategy formulation need the involvement of qualified, competent and talented employees that would influence the creation of a successful strategy.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">However, the main problem in designing an unsuccessful strategy lies in the fact that most companies in the process of strategy development involve high level hierarchical levels and consultants inside or outside the company, leaving aside most of the human resources that contribute to the success of the company.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Various literature has emphasized that strategy formulation is an essential step in turning a company's vision and objectives into reality. Therefore, the visionary leadership of companies should be oriented towards giving more importance to human resources during the process of strategy formulation and involve any team member who can contribute to the realization of organizational goals and organizational vision.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Through this paper we will present human resources at a higher level in terms of importance and provide conclusions and recommendations on how organizations today should value these strategic resources and achieve competitive advantage in the market.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">In this paper we will give an overview of Kosovar companies, the process of strategy formulation in these companies and analyze how human resources are involved in the process and what importance is given to them by the company.</span></p> Venet Shala Copyright (c) 2020 Venet Shala http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-07-31 2020-07-31 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.417 Service Quality Determinants of Electricity Consumers in The Gambia https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/431 <p>In a competitive market environment where goods and services are rendered to consumers, the quality of products has significant impact on its price. Competition in energy sector directly affects the nature and quality of service delivery to its consumers, thus the quality of service will greatly determine the level of satisfaction customers received from the quality of delivered service. To this effect, this study focus on the utility service industry through investing the determinants of service quality on customer satisfaction on the Gambian electricity service consumers – a case study of National Water and Electricity Company Limited (NAWEC). This paper also identifies key strategies that the utility service company can employ to increase its customer satisfaction. Using non-probability convenience sampling, data was collected from 250 domestic consumers of electricity in the Gambia using self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics; Correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the data through IBM SPSS statistics Version 20. The results of the regression analysis identify assurance, responsiveness and empathy as the top most consumer perceived service quality determinants of Gambian electricity consumers respectively. This implies that NAWEC should develop and implement excellent quality service delivery initiatives with much emphasis on service assurance, responsiveness and emotional empathy as well as business models and strategies gear towards consumerism, in addition to professional and competent staff recruitment and training. The result of which will significantly lead to an increase customer satisfaction for the corporation.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> S. Jawneh M. Manneh Copyright (c) 2020 M. Manneh, S. Jawneh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-08-03 2020-08-03 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.431 The Impact of Terrorism Activities As Threat To Unstable Economy on Foreign Direct Investments FDI: A Panel Study of 33 Sub-Saharan African Countries https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/443 <p>The study aims to assess the impact of terrorism activities on foreign direct investment in a panel study of 33 Sub-Saharan African countries. In order to achieve the objective of the study, it employed panel data methodologies such as GLS random-effect, ML random-effect, fixed effect regression, generalized linear model and multivariate regression methods to enable it make statistically and robust inference or conclusion. However, the study found that there is an inverse linear relationship or impact on foreign direct investment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the study found out that economic growth and foreign direct investment are inversely related and corruption control has positive and direct linear relationship with foreign direct investment. As the study focused on the linear relationship of terrorism activities and foreign direct investments, it recommends further studies into the subject-matter by employing the non-linear approaches to ascertain the non-linear relationship between the two.</p> Yao HongXing Winfred Okoe Addy Samuel Kofi Otchere Robert Yao Aaronson Jean-Jacques Dominique Beraud Copyright (c) 2020 Yao HongXing, Winfred Okoe Addy, Samuel Kofi Otchere, Robert Yao Aaronson, Jean-Jacques Dominique Beraud, Mr http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.443 Proposed Production Process Standardization at Function ART Indonesia to Reduce Waste of Production https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/446 <p>The growth of the property business goes hand in hand with the furnishing industry in Indonesia. The construction of apartments, minimalist houses which adjust to the limitations of land in Indonesia creates changes in furnishing designs which are minimalist, simple, and multifunctional that support, such as space saving models. In Indonesia, many space saving products are introduced by foreign companies such as IKEA and Informa. Function.id is one of the small businesses that has a goal to fulfill the needs of space saving product in Indonesia. With some limitations, Function.id does the production process using the makloon / outsource method. However, because the concepts applied are not standardized and well-structured, instead it creates a problem in the production process. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to identify the problem and to standardize the makloon production process of Function.id to be implemented in Function ART Indonesia.</p> <p>The approach of this research is qualitative with expert interview, then continued to define the production process and communication process of Function.id and its vendor to ease the analysis of this research. After that do a root cause analysis to map the problems of Function.id with ishikawa diagram as a framework. The main causes of problems faced by Function.id are no designer specialist, limited source of vendor, lack of supplier source, having no a precise and measurable product design for vendor, having no clear letter of agreement, unstructured communication process, unstable ordering pattern, and having no standardization guidelines.</p> <p>Solutions and improvements that can be applied to develop Function.id into Function ART Indonesia in its production process are creation of a structured and create an SOP for production process with instruments of communication to vendor and supplier with implementation of heijunka. Also, some requirements that needs to be prepared before the production process could be implemented, such as do a collaboration with designer, design maximizing, letter of agreement and survey for supplier and vendor.</p> Demara Bijak Kurniawan Sonny Rustiadi Copyright (c) 2020 Demara Bijak Kurniawan, Sonny Rustiadi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-08-05 2020-08-05 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.446 The role of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) explaining recycling behavior: an emerging market perspective https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/123 <p>This study aims to understand the role of Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in the context of recycling behavior. The research followed a positivistic, deductive, and quantitative methodology. The study was conducted with a sample size of 467 using snowball sampling technique. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to assess construct reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity in order to ensure reliability and effectiveness of the measurement model. The results show that overall model fit was acceptable and statistically significant. The study also reveals that, although TPB is considered to be widely acceptable model explaining most of the attitude–behavior relationship for many years, unable to predict the recycling intention adequately through various predictive variables such as attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control in this particular case. However, recycling intention itself is statistically significant in predicting actual recycling behavior. This study has potentially added insights into the existing literature through experimenting an established model which can be useful developing an effective and comprehensive model in future. It can also be used in various industries to find ways to develop recycling behavior through the lens of other potential factors such as external environment. As environment is also a priority agenda for the government and policymaker nowadays, this can assist them in making and implementing various effective and sustainable policies in future.</p> Md. Motaher Hossain Md. Tamzidul Islam K.M. Zahidul Islam Copyright (c) 2020 Md. Motaher Hossain, Md. Tamzidul Islam, K.M. Zahidul Islam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-08-09 2020-08-09 5 4 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.4.123