European Journal of Business and Management Research https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr European Journal of Business and Management Research EUROPA Publishing en-US European Journal of Business and Management Research 2507-1076 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript&nbsp;represents&nbsp;that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Integrating Enterprise Risk Management with Strategic Planning for Improved Firm Performance https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/488 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the integration of ERM at the strategic planning stage improves a firm's financial performance measured in terms of return on assets. Many researches in the literature have focused on the determinants of ERM implementation and its effects on firm performance. In most of these studies, the ERM concept has been measured dichotomously. A comprehensive measure of ERM is used in this study from primary data gathered based on an established ERM framework. The results show that ERM implementation is not significantly related to firm performance. However, empirical evidence is provided that if ERM is integrated with strategic planning, firm performance shall significantly improve. The comprehensive ERM measure provided contributes to the literature as it enables risk practitioners to assess the level of risk management in their organizations. ERM researchers can use this measure to do away with the dichotomous ERM measure. Furthermore, the study provides evidence of strategic planning, serving as a mediator in the ERM and firm performance relationship in a less investigated context of Africa.</span></p> Mohamed Santigie Kanu Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed Santigie Kanu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.488 Proposed Strategy for Pharmaceutical Industry (Case Study: PT Bio Farma Persero) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/457 <p>PT Bio Farma (Persero) is a state-owned company that runs its business in the pharmaceutical industry, namely Vaccines and Anti-Sera products, so it has an important role to play in improving the quality of life in Indonesia. In addition, Bio Farma already has the capability to export its products because it already has WHO pre-qualifications.</p> <p>PT Bio Farma (Persero) in distributing its products has two market sectors, namely the domestic and international sectors. In running its business, the company has several busines issue, namely Halal Product Regulation, High Rate of Raw Materials, Declining of Export Sales, Polio Eradication, and Global Covid Outbreak.</p> <p>To analyze the internal condition, it used PESTEL analysis, Porter Five Forces and Competitor Analysis. To analyze the external condition, it used Resource Analysis and Value Chain Analysis are used. From all of these analyzes, a SWOT Analysis will be obtained to formulate the right strategy, and to propose Corporate, Business, and Functional Strategies that can be carried out by the company.</p> <p>The right corporate strategy is the Diversification Strategy, this strategy aims to develop the company's products and markets to increase its competitiveness. Meanwhile, the right Business Strategy is Integrated Cost Leadership/Differentiation, this strategy aims to provide unique value to the company's products and create value chain efficiency.</p> Reynaldy Prayogi Harimukti Wandebori Copyright (c) 2020 Reynaldy Prayogi, Harimukti Wandebori http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-09 2020-09-09 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.457 The Effect of Leadership Style and Competence on Employee Performance https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/494 <p>Government officials regions must have the maximum capacity in managing human resources in their regions. Local governments, either individually, in groups or institutions, are trying to improve the quality and quantity of work in order to improve their performance. This study aims to determine the effect of leadership style, competence on organizational commitment. To determine the effect of leadership style, competence and commitment to performance. To find out the role of organizational commitment in mediating the influence of leadership style and competence on performance at the Office of Investment and One Stop Services (DPMPTSP) Denpasar City Bali, Indonesia. Data collection using a questionnaire. The number of samples used was 77 people using purposive sampling method. The data analysis technique used SEM-PLS. The results showed that leadership style had a positive effect on organizational commitment. Competence has a positive effect on commitment organizational, leadership style has a positive effect on employee performance, competence has a positive effect on employee performance, organizational commitment has a positive effect on employee performance, organizational commitment can mediate the influence of leadership style on employee performance, organizational commitment can mediate the influence of competence on employee performance.<em>&nbsp;</em></p> I. Made Sulantara Putu Kepra Mareni I. Ketut Setia Sapta Ni Kadek Suryani Copyright (c) 2020 I. Made Sulantara, Putu Kepra Mareni, I. Ketut Setia Sapta, Ni Kadek Suryani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.494 The Influence of Internal and External Factors on Firm Value https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/492 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This research was conducted to analyze the effect of capital structure, liquidity, interest rates and exchange rates in influencing company value in mining sector companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI). Sampling technique using a purposive sampling method the mining company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in the year 2016 -2019 resulted in 37 companies that meet the criteria. Data analysis was performed using regression panel data with E-Views program 10 and a significance level of 5%. The results of the test were obtained that the capital structure influence significantly restricted a p-value of the company, liquidity does not have a significant effect on firm value, the interest rate does not have a significant effect on firm value, and the exchange rate stated with the middle rate has a significant negative effect on firm value.</span></p> Dewi Cahyani Pangestuti Azzahra Meirizqi Louisa Tindangen Copyright (c) 2020 Dewi Cahyani Pangestuti, Azzahra Meirizqi Louisa Tindangen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.492 Acceptance Model of Hospital Information Management System: Case of Study in Indonesia https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/505 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">In this digital era, Hospitals must follow the competition that demands professionally managed services which cannot be separated from the role of computer technology. Therefore, a hospital needs a management information system that can integrate all its activities in order to improve performance and services, which is better known as Hospital Information System Management (HIS). The purpose of this study is to analyze the actual application of hospital management information systems using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) method with behavior intention as the intervening variable.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This research method is done using the quantitative approach, type of causality in the form of survey, one short study time horizon in the form of a questionnaire using Path Analysis. The analysis units are 100 respondents of employees at Metropolitan Medical Centre Hospital in Jakarta, who used HIS 2020. Purposive Sampling was used as the sampling technique. The results showed that attitude towards using HIS had a positive effect on behavioral intention to use. Perceived Usefulness has a positive effect on behavioral intention to use. Perceived Ease of use has a positive effect on behavioral intention to use. Behavioral intention to use has a positive effect on actual technology to use. Attitude toward using has a positive effect on actual technology to use. Perceived Ease of use has a positive effect on actual technology to use. The research findings indicate that the behavioral intention to use variable is a variable that increases the use of HIS because it can benefit from the use by the user. The implication in realizing the increase in HIS requires policies and commitment of hospital management in mandatory, advocacy, socialization, training, monitoring and evaluation related to HIS in each unit.</span></p> Suko Gomer . Hasyim Rokiah Kusumapradja Copyright (c) 2020 Suko Gomer, . Hasyim, Rokiah Kusumapradja http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.505 Cloud Computing and Student’s Record Management Efficiency in Niger Delta University https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/490 <p>Information is relatively the life conduit of any organization. An inappropriate management of records and the information contained therein could cost organization both operational and financial fortune. The focus of this paper was to establish the empirical link between cloud computing and student’s record management efficiency in Niger Delta University. Software as a service (Saas) and Platform as a service (Paas) were used to operationalize the predictor variable, while records accessibility and safety were used as measures of record management efficiency. 301 staffers were sampled randomly with questionnaire. Data collected was inferential analyzed using spearman rank order correlation coefficient with the aid of SPSS. Result shows high correlation amongst all variables which means that increase cloud computing practices in the institution would enhance record’s management efficiency. The study recommends therefore that management of Niger Delta University should leverage on available software service provides to store all students’ records on cloud to avoid losses of records due to flood and undue physical environmental conditions. Also, cloud computing model should be utilized for efficiency in record management to create good public image for vantage competitive edge.</p> Amakiri Don-solomon Michael Joshua Ayawei Copyright (c) 2020 Amakiri Don-solomon, Michael Joshua Ayawei http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.490 Using Categorical Data Analysis to Estimate Population Change in EU25: Absolute Numbers and Crude Rates https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/481 <p>Statistics on population change and the structure of population are increasingly used to support policymaking and to provide the opportunity to monitor demographic behaviour within political, economic, social and cultural contexts. Specifically, this concerns demographic developments that focus on a likely reduction in the relative importance of the working age population and a corresponding increase in the number of older persons. These statistics may be used to support a range of different analyses, including studies relating to population ageing and its effects on the sustainability of public finance and welfare, the evaluation of fertility as a background for family policies, or the economic and social impact of demographic change. This research aims to highlight the population change in twenty-five countries of the European Union. We consider the use of categorical data analysis to estimate the population change in EU25: absolute numbers and crude rates from 2003-2017. The data used in this study are from the Eurostat/World population prospects and estimated on actual base year from. Since the main focus is to have a better understanding of the population change in EU25, the analysis of association table (ANOAS) is given in order to ascertain the percentage of the data which is covered by each model. We find and estimate the association model with the best fit and in conclusion we find out that the Row-Column Effects Association Model (RC) of the multivariate model (M=4) has the best fit among all - covering a total of 99.9% of the data observed.</p> Adanma Ngozi Ohia Joel Chiadikobi Nwaubani Uchechi Mgbafor Ezeji Uzokwe Chinwe Adaugo Christiana Uzoma Ezechukwu Opara Peace Copyright (c) 2020 Adanma Ngozi Ohia, Joel Chiadikobi Nwaubani, Uchechi Mgbafor Ezeji, Uzokwe Chinwe Adaugo, Christiana Uzoma Ezechukwu, Opara Peace http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.481 Evaluation of Total Employment Rate Aged 15-64 in EU15 https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/484 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Many papers have been written on the subject - total employment rate, and most of them stressed on excessive pressure emanating from economic recession, heavy competition, modern and skill biased technological changes as the main principal causes of demands for jobs. Unarguably, evaluating total employment rate remain issues of considerable importance for economists, statisticians, the media and policy makers. However, understanding how the economy works requires a shift from economic modelling to economic analysis. We will consider the use of association model as an alternative to reduced form methods. Against the background of total employment rate, this study considers and estimate the most accurate association model of the Categorical Data Analysis for the total employment rate - employed persons aged 15-64 as a share of the total population of the same age group in the EU15 from 2008-2017. The analysis of association (ANOAS) table is given in order to ascertain the percentage of the data which is covered by each model. We estimate the association model to find the model with the best fit and acceptable. In conclusion we find out that the Column Effects Association Model (C) has the best fit because it covers almost 90% of the data - giving the best fit among all.</span></p> Joel Chiadikobi Nwaubani Adanma Ngozi Ohia Opara Peace Uzokwe Chinwe Adaugo Uchechi Mgbafor Ezeji Christiana Uzoma Ezechukwu Copyright (c) 2020 Joel Chiadikobi Nwaubani, Adanma Ngozi Ohia, Opara Peace, Uzokwe Chinwe Adaugo, Uchechi Mgbafor Ezeji, Christiana Uzoma Ezechukwu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.484 Impact on The Supply Chain in a Hospital Environment Caused by the Coronavirus Inside the State of Amazonas https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/482 <p>With the emergence of a pandemic in the world caused by the new coronavirus (COVID-19), many companies closed doors because of the lack of capital to maintain operational performance. Still, others reinvented and adapted themselves during this problem. The impact was no different on the industries, mainly on their supply chain, on inventories, and production rates, whether they are small, medium, or large. The fact is that no one left unscathed as a result of this pandemic. The general objective of this study was to present the impact on the supply chain in the hospital environment in the interior of the Amazonas state, which has an entirely different logistics arrangement from anywhere in the world. The results indicate that the proper functioning of the hospital system is directly related to the capacity to supply adequate materials that guarantee the execution of procedures with quality and higher patient satisfaction. &nbsp;</p> Mayko Pinheiro da Silva Gabriela de Mattos Veroneze Marcelo Albuquerque de Oliveira Ingrid Marina Pinto Pereira Copyright (c) 2020 Mayko Pinheiro da Silva, Gabriela de Mattos Veroneze, Marcelo Albuquerque de Oliveira, Ingrid Marina Pinto Pereira http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.482 Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Balance of Payments: Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/501 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The article is devoted to the consideration of the pandemic impact on the balance of payments of developed and developing countries. In addition, the article presents proposals and recommendations aimed at mitigating the impact of pandemic on the balance of payments in the Republic of Uzbekistan.</span></p> Sohibjamol Jumaeva Copyright (c) 2020 Sohibjamol Jumaeva http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-12 2020-09-12 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.501 Media and Economic Growth: Country Groups Difference via Panel Data https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/510 <p>The present article investigates the link between economic growth, namely GDP per capita, and the media activity represented with the indicator of the press freedom alongside other factors such as infrastructure, institutional conditions, and foreign direct investments. A panel of 179 countries was used for the period from 2000 to 2015. In particular, we run two panel data analysis models, fixed effects and random effects models, and examined their output with Hausman’s specification test, which pointed the fixed effects model as more efficient for the presented data set. However due to the presence of serial correlation, heteroskedastic, and cross-panel dependence, a Prais-Winsten regression with panel corrected standard errors (PCSE) was implemented. The comparative analysis of models of four country groups, divided by GNI per capita, was conducted. Both statistically significant correlation coefficients and models’ output provided evidence of an association between economic growth and the press activity.</p> Viktoriia Ahapova Copyright (c) 2020 Viktoriia Ahapova http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.510 Determination Cost of Sales and Utilization of Internet Media for SMEs Marketing in Kelanggaran Unyur https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/496 <p>The development of several food preparations in Kelanggaran Village, Unyur Serang, Banten, are craftsmen who diversify their processed products of various sizes, shapes, and types. The increase in the amount of production produced by craftsmen often neglects to be unable to determine the expected profit target related to material spending, production processes to marketing, so that prices are formed only based on estimates. In addition, this service aims to provide understanding to the craftsmen of special food processing. It is hoped that after this service, they can determine the cost of goods sold themselves and be able to market these special processed foods through the internet for their business. The implementation method in the program uses the participatory follow-up assessment method for IbM partners. This method is carried out because of the need for a partner situation analysis stage in the form of a field visit to the partners. To solve the solution to the problems faced by food processing craftsmen as partners, it is carried out in the form of a series of activities. Based on the results of direct observations, discussions and direct questions and answers during the activity, namely increased knowledge and understanding of determining the cost of goods sold and the use of internet media in the micro food / souvenir business typical of Serang City, this can be seen from the results of observations, discussions and questions and answers. during the training process. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Khoirul Aswar . Ermawati Copyright (c) 2020 Khoirul Aswar, . Ermawati http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-16 2020-09-16 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.496 The Impact of Human Development on the Standard of Living in Alleviating Poverty: Evidence from Africa https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/511 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The African Union 2030, 2063, and beyond strategic, focused on transformative economic growth and regional integration, empowering the populace and consolidating peace and society cannot be achieved without considering human development as synergies in elevating these policies. A large focus on empowering the populace through domestic credit can help this agenda be realized. For robustness sake, the researcher developed both subjective and objective measures to check the various relationships of the variable that helps to achieve the standard of living. Using data from the World Bank's development indicators and Human Development indicators from 1998 to 2017, the researcher examined human development reduces poverty. In this meta-analysis, the study empirically synthesizes a total of four African countries under study, fixed and random effects estimation, domestic credit and human development study find out these variables have a positive relationship of poverty which helps to improve the standard of living. The findings of this study have important implications for policy implementation and therefore, helps to improve the standard of living in the four countries under study. </span></p> Benjamin Korankye Xuezhou Wen Easmond Baah Nketia Godson Kweitsu Copyright (c) 2020 Benjamin Korankye, Xuezhou Wen, Easmond Baah Nketia, Godson Kweitsu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-17 2020-09-17 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.511 Macro-Economic Determinants of High Technology Exports https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/506 <p>An evaluation of the outcome of research and development is intrinsic for building a long-term foundation for economic development. The high technology exports are one indicator that can access the outcome of research and development of the economy. This study employed the data of high tech exports of 15 developed and developing economies during 2007-2018. The fixed effect regression estimates were analysed upon, validation of which is enumerated by the Hausman test. Two significant findings that the study implicates are, first, the benefits of an outward-oriented policy that has fewer tariff burdens will result in the promotion of high-tech exports. Secondly, the study is intrigued by the role of financial market development, which in turn is export-oriented, thereby reducing the foreign exchange burden. The enhanced access to financial markets and increased depth has proven to be congenial for high tech exports.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Monika Gaur Ravi Kant NMP Verma Copyright (c) 2020 Monika Gaur, Ravi Kant, NMP Verma http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.506 The Mediating Role of Job Satisfaction in the Development of Officer's Performance https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/518 <p>This study aims to examine the effect of the work environment, compensation on job satisfaction, and officer performance. This research was conducted in eight Public Health Centers in Pinrang Regency with a population of 322 people; researchers took 220 people as samples. This research method uses regressive research with a quantitative approach. The technique of collecting data by making observations with the media questionnaire. The method of analysis uses inferential statistics with a parametric data type and uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results showed that the work environment variable on employee performance had a positive and significant effect because it had t-value = 2.97 &gt; 1.96 (t-table). Likewise, the work environment on job satisfaction has at-value = 2.31&gt; 1.96 (t-table) which means that the work environment has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. The work environment on employee performance mediated by job satisfaction also has a significant effect with t-value = -2.32&gt; 1.96 (t-table). However, the compensation variable on employee performance shows no and significant effect because the t-value = 0.00 &lt;1.96 (t-table). The compensation variable on job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect with t-value = 2.97&gt; 1.96 (t-table). Likewise, the compensation variable on employee performance with job satisfaction as a mediating variable has at-value = 3.36&gt; 1.96 (t-table) which means that positive job satisfaction mediates the relationship between compensation and employee performance. With t-value = -2.73&gt; 1.96 (t-table), so it can be interpreted that the job satisfaction variable has a positive and significant effect on officer performance.</p> Muhammad Ridha . Mahfudnurnajamuddin Baharuddin Semmaila Mursalim Mursalim Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Ridha, . Mahfudnurnajamuddin, Baharuddin Semmaila, Mursalim Mursalim http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-20 2020-09-20 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.518 Evaluation of Risk Parity Asset Allocation Strategy in Indonesia Mutual Fund During 2010–2019 Period https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/519 <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Indonesia as the largest country in Southeast Asia have the highest GDP among the other countries in the region. In 2011, McKinsey &amp; Company conducted a research to understand the annual consumer spending trend in Indonesia. According to the research, financial services will be the main consumption in Indonesia in 2030. Despite those promising situations, mutual fund industry in Indonesia was facing a big challenge in 2019. During 2019, Indonesia Financial Authority (OJK) has suspended 37 mismanaged mutual fund products from several investment managers. And actively managed mutual funds will have more exposure on this mismanagement risk.</span></p> <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Aside from mismanagement and underperforming risk of actively managed mutual fund, investor also facing high risk of equity asset class. Recently, IDX Composite (IHSG) experience a tremendous -28% drop in Q1 2020. Biggest peak to bottom drawdown during that period was -37,49% from 14 January 2020 until 24 March 2020. This situation creates a challenge for mutual fund sales agent (APERD).</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">But a challenging situation also offers opportunities. Mutual fund sales agent (APERD) that can offer optimum asset allocation suggestion that can give maximum risk protection can take advantage of these situation. One such unique strategy that has not been applied by other mutual fund sales agent (APERD) is risk parity that became popular after 2008 financial crisis.</span></p> <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span lang="EN-US">This research applied risk parity framework in passively managed mutual fund because most of actively managed mutual funds in Indonesia underperform the benchmark in the 10-year period. Because of that, passively managed mutual funds provide better investment opportunity. Four equity indexes (LQ45, Jakarta Islamic Index, Bisnis 27, and Sri Kehati) and one passively managed fixed income mutual fund (ABF Indonesia Bond Index Fund) that have existed for 10-year period was chosen to apply the risk parity method. Sharpe ratio calculation is used to evaluate the portfolio performance compared to commonly used portfolio strategy in the world according to 2018 Legg Mason Global Investment Survey.</span></p> <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Result of the analysis is that risk parity portfolio offer better Sharpe ratio compared to commonly used portfolio strategy in the world. Result of 2009 - April 2020 back-testing process also show that risk parity can protect investor from equity market downturn in 77.3% of the case. With above result, risk parity can offer better risk protection for Indonesia individual investor. </span></p> Wayan Mahendra Kurniawan Erman Sumirat Copyright (c) 2020 Wayan Mahendra Kurniawan, Erman Sumirat http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-21 2020-09-21 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.519 Investigating Warehousing Operations from an Integrated Supply-Chain and Transportation Approach https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/527 <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span lang="EN-US">Transportation a primary step in the supply chain of goods. The responsive time between the parts of this chain may critically affect the duration of the processes. By accounting on an integrated system, warehouses can increase the accuracy and reliability of the processes. This paper analyzes the feasibility of integrated transportation and warehousing platforms from two points of view: infrastructure (e.g. physical place, geographical location) and organizational perspective (e.g. software, data, models). This paper contributes to fill the gap between practitioners and researchers about the needs of both systems. This paper found that transportation and warehousing are two inherently linked systems. However, the current practice lacks substantial improvements in data collection and modeling of these systems. Future directions point towards the use of big data and the implementation of econometric concepts (i.e. choice models), together with a spatial understanding of the impact of warehousing locations (i.e. accessibility concept) in transport costs. E-commerce, big data, and autonomous driving are the future challenges to integrating these two systems of warehousing and transportation. Finally, with the current pandemic of COVID-19, improving freight services is becoming a basic need. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the needs of integrating transportation and warehousing in the current challenging times.</span></p> Sushant Siddharth Wanjari Copyright (c) 2020 Sushant Siddharth Wanjari http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.527 Crude Oil Price Shocks, Exchange Rate Regimes and Monetary Policy in African Oil Producing Countries https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/509 <p class="Abstract" style="margin-top: 0cm; text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span lang="EN-US">This study investigated whether exchange rate regimes and interest rate policy have a significant explanatory power of oil price implications on African oil producing economies. Data for the study were sourced from World Development Indicators published by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (World Economic Outlook). The study used a four variable Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR) model. Findings from the SVAR impulse response functions revealed that no exchange rate regime is the best, and no one is bad for African oil producing countries, judging from the costs and benefits that are associated with the three major exchange rate regimes. Findings from the study equally confirmed that expansionary monetary policy is more effective in insulating against and compensating for the negative effects of the shocks associated with the global oil price in the selected oil producing countries in Africa. </span></p> Adetona Sikiru Adedeji Mojeed Olanrewaju Saliu Copyright (c) 2020 Adetona Sikiru Adedeji, Mojeed Olanrewaju Saliu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-24 2020-09-24 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.509 Managing Price Risk of Pork through Gross Margin: A Depiction from China and US https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/504 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">China’s demand for pork has been increasing at a relatively constant rate and its pork imports are increasingly determined by the fluctuations of its domestic supply. This fluctuation in domestic supply has resulted in making farmers suffer from the shocks of price instability. Despite the absence or underdevelopment of livestock insurance in most developing countries, an experience from China and US serves as a lesson for these countries to pay attention to the subsector with potential contribution to the country’s economy but having little or no efforts accorded to the same. This study explored the importance of Livestock Gross Margin (LGM) insurance by analyzing the pork price fluctuation trend in China and linking the risk to the impacts on revenues of pork producers. The sources of data were national surveys reports, research papers and data obtained from China’s Ministry of Agriculture (MoA). Findings revealed that Pork producers in China had been faced with adverse price fluctuations that posed threats to producers’ revenues. The study shows LGM insurance as an important and alternative tool to smooth incomes of the producers in the pork industry when it is managed in its advanced stage. For pork industry to continue prospering, the study recommends establishment of reliable futures market to provide partial income risk insurance to producers whose output is risky. </span></p> Phillip Daniel Daninga Zhang Qiao Copyright (c) 2020 Phillip Daniel Daninga, Zhang Qiao http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.504 Forecasting GDP Per Capita In Bangladesh: Using Arima Model https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/533 <p>GDP per capita is one of the key indicators of the economic health of any country. It is often used by academicians and decision-makers to plan public and private policies. The work aims to forecast the real per capita GDP in Bangladesh. Using yearly data for Bangladesh from 1972 to 2019, the study analyzes future GDP per capita using the ARIMA technique. The ADF, PP, and KPSS tests showed that the appropriate model to forecast Bangladeshi GDP per capita is ARIMA (0, 2, 1). Finally, we applied in our paper the ARIMA model (0,2,1) to forecast the GDP per capita of Bangladesh for the next decade. The future GDP per capita shows that living standards in Bangladesh will continue. Indeed, Bangladesh's economy is growing, and other poor countries must learn from Bangladesh's experiences. The study offers policy prescriptions to help policymakers for Bangladesh on how to maintain, preserve, and promote sustainable growth in Bangladesh.</p> Liton Chandra Voumik Dilruba Yesmin Smrity Copyright (c) 2020 Liton Chandra Voumik, Dilruba Yesmin Smrity http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.533 Relationship of Leadership styles and Employee Creativity: A Mediating Role of Relational Confidence https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/515 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the style of leadership and the creative of employee by acting as trusted mediators in communication. The standard pilot survey included 250 employees from four innovative sectors in Ghana. Several classifications of series were used to test the relationship, prior to multiple regressions, all general assumptions were validated and deemed appropriate. The validity and reliability of the search engines were also tested. The study found that creative workers were positively and more closely involved in changing the fashion of leadership in firms, while the style business was largely associated with creative workers. In addition, reliable communication bridges the bond between style of leadership and creativity of employee, which is why system leadership is more cohesive and mobile. It is believed that trust can increase the relationship between manager and staff.</p> Mei Rong Zhen Dominic Atiga Copyright (c) 2020 Mei Rong Zhen, Dominic Atiga http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.515 Political Connection, Institutional Ownership and Tax Aggressiveness in Indonesia https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/528 <p>This study aims to analyze the effect of political connection and institutional ownership toward tax aggressiveness on manufacturing companies listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange. Samples for this study are 62 manufacturing companies listed between the periods of 2014 -&nbsp;&nbsp; 2018, hence obtained 310 observations. Result of this study shows that political connection of the directors and institutional ownership have positive and significant effect toward tax aggressiveness, while the political connection of the board of commissioners does not significantly affect toward the tax aggressiveness. Furthermore, this study also finds the difference of political connection and institutional ownership between big companies and small companies. The effect of political connection of the directors is stronger in small companies than big companies, while the effect of political connection of the board of commissioners toward tax aggressiveness is stronger in big companies than small companies.</p> Yety Anggraini Wahyu Widarjo Copyright (c) 2020 Yetty Anggraini, Wahyu Widarjo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-27 2020-09-27 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.528 Developing a Marketing Strategy to Increase the Occupancy Rate: Case Study Hotel XYZ https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/534 <p>Hotel XYZ is one of the oldest local hotels in Bandung. Located in a strategic location, this hotel uses the concept of a heritage hotel. In 2017-2019, Hotel XYZ experienced a decline in performance. This happen due to lowering the occupancy rate of the rooms which results in a decrease in overall income. The increasing number of local accommodations has also increased competition between hotels with the same target market. All data used in this study are qualitative and based on primary data and secondary data. Primary data was obtained through interviews with the XYZ hotel management and internal data needs such as room occupancy rate data and financial reports. Meanwhile, secondary data comes from study literature, related news and related journals. This study aims to help Hotel XYZ, to increase the occupancy rate of rooms so that they can survive in business in this industry. Several strategies will be used in this study to increase room occupancy rates. In this research, the author will identify problems through PEST analysis, competitor analysis, customer analysis and virtual hotel operator analysis and business model canvas. From the results of the analysis, the authors found that there are conditions that are not ideal, including not maximizing marketing activities, resulting in high walk-in consumers. After carrying out procedures for analysis related to company issues, the authors compile alternative solutions that can be proposed to be able to increase the occupancy rate and hotel revenue through a marketing strategy. The author develops strategies through new wave marketing and sustainability strategies. With this strategy, marketing activities can focus more on communities such as business travelers. XYZ hotel must also conducted some additional activities such as reactivating social media and websites, updating the interior and working with parties who can support hotel marketing activities.</p> Farah Hani Andini Deddy Priatmodjo Koesrindartoto Copyright (c) 2020 Farah Hani Andini, Deddy Priatmodjo Koesrindartoto http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.534 Analyzing the Impact of Human and Technological Factors on Warehouse Productivity https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/539 <p>Warehouse productivity depends on the efficiency and effectiveness of the operators and the equally capable and optimized Warehouse Management Systems (WMS) system. The warehouse operators come with a diverse skill set and experience to perform the job. Likewise, the WMS system could be simple or complex depending upon how it is customized. Also, there are technological infrastructure limitations that hinder the ability of the operator to perform the job. This research paper outlines the result of a survey conducted over 200 respondents to find the major human and technological factors and their impact on warehouse productivity. The questionnaire used a Likert scale where the respondents had to agree from one (1) to five (5) among fourteen (14) statements. Factor analysis is used to identify the correlation among those factors. The results show the most statistically significant correlations, and for future research an extended sample size can be targeted.</p> Sushant Siddharth Wanjari Copyright (c) 2020 Sushant Wanjari http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.539 Business Strategy Formulation for Publishing Company (Case Study: ABC Press) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/535 <p>With emergence of technological and social change, rivalry between firms in the publishing industry is becoming more intense. Number of publishers in Indonesia keeps increasing, while switching cost of customer is low. ABC Press is a university publisher that has a volatile revenue, where they experienced revenue decrease in 2016 by 1,73% and in 2019 by 19,36%. Besides that, the business also has not grown much, where the average revenue growth from 2015 to 2019 is only 15,93%. ABC Press needs to formulate and reinvent their business strategy and model to improve their performance, remain competitive and sustainable in the publishing industry. This study uses primary data based on interview with three representatives of ABC Press and examine related secondary data to map the current Business Model Canvas (BMC). Then internal and external analysis is carried out to perform SWOT analysis in BMC, followed by strategy and new BMC formulation. To create value innovation, author used Four Action Framework in the strategy formulation. Cost leadership is deemed as the most appropriate business strategy, which demands ABC Press to conduct process innovation through developed production and distribution methods. Meanwhile, long tail business model combined with multi-sided platform is the appropriate business model, where ABC Press needs to focus on offering large range of niche products through their website as their main platform.</p> Aulia Widya Bestari Wibisono Deddy Priatmodjo Koesrindartoto Copyright (c) 2020 Aulia Widya Bestari Wibisono, Deddy Priatmodjo Koesrindartoto http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.535 Intellectual Capital Disclosure, Good Corporate Governance and Firm Performance: Asean Cross Country Analysis https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/479 <p>This study aims to examine the impact of intellectual capital information disclosure and the application of Good Corporate Governance to the performance of companies in ASEAN countries. This study used a sample of 102 firm-year from 6 ASEAN countries 5 ASEAN countries namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Phlipina, Singapore and Thailand. The test result proves that intellectual capital disclosure in ASEAN able to improve company performance. In addition, this study also proves that the implementation of GCG has a positive impact on the performance of the company's operations in ASEAN. This research also proves that leverage variable has no impact to company performance. Meanwhile, company size has a positive impact on company performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Juan Barus Gultom Itjang. D. Gunawan Copyright (c) 2020 Juan Barus Gultom, Itjang. D. Gunawan http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-29 2020-09-29 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.479 Exchange Rate Policy and Export Promotion: Evidence from Uzbekistan https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/502 <p>This article is devoted to the analysis of the impact of exchange rate policy on export performance in terms of theory and practice. In addition, the article presents developed scientific proposals and practical recommendations aimed at enhancing the promoting role of exchange rate policy in improving export performance of the Republic of Uzbekistan.</p> Elmurod Abdusattorovich Hoshimov Copyright (c) 2020 Elmurod Abdusattorovich Hoshimov http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-26 2020-09-26 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.502 Financial Performance as Mediator on the Impact of Capital Structure, Wealth Structure, Financial Structure on Stock Price: The Case of The Indonesian Banking Sector https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/526 <p class="Text" style="text-indent: 10.2pt; line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 9.0pt;">This research examines the financial performance as a mediating variable in analyzing the capital structure, wealth structure, and financial structure of stock prices by using trade-off theory and signaling theory. This study uses 145 secondary data in the form of bank financial reports listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX). Model testing uses structural equation (SEM) through the SmartPLS version 3.0 programs. The results of model testing show that capital structure and financial structure can reduce financial performance, wealth structure can improve financial performance. High financial performance cannot increase stock prices. The capital structure does not lower the stock price, the wealth structure raises the stock price, and the financial structure lowers the stock price. Financial performance does not mediate the effect of capital structure, wealth structure, and financial structure on stock prices.</span></p> Andi Mansyur Abd. Rahman Mus Zainuddin Rahman Suriyanti Suriyanti Copyright (c) 2020 Andi Mansyur, Abd. Rahman Mus, Zainuddin Rahman, Suriyanti Suriyanti http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-03 2020-10-03 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.526 Macroeconomic Impacts of Oil Price Shocks on the Nigerian Economy https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/532 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The study investigates the macroeconomic impacts of oil price shocks in Nigeria. The study which covers a period from 1980 to 2019 made use of macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate, inflation rate, GDP while oil price is the main exogenous variable. The VAR technique of analysis is adopted and the result shows that oil price shocks do not have direct effect on the GDP but via macroeconomic variable especially exchange rate. The study indicates that exchange rate is the main intermediate variable that passes oil price shocks effect to the Nigerian economy. Evidence of Dutch Disease in Nigeria is also confirmed from the study which further shows the high level of dependency of Nigerian economy on oil.</span></p> Patrick Ologbenla Copyright (c) 2020 Patrick Ologbenla http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.532 The Role of Motivation Among IT professionals To Foster Innovation: SMEs Focus https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/524 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">In today's fast-paced digital world outperforming competitors and achieving success becomes utterly challenging for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The rapid speed of technological change can threaten established industries and undermine existing businesses. By effectively harnessing innovation, businesses can open-up new markets and develop new ways to accommodate the needs of existing customers. Countless research findings reveal that innovation is one of the most essential factors to ensure strategic efficiency and effectiveness in SMEs. Human resources play an integral part in attaining company’s goals and objectives. By motivating and encouraging employees to be more innovative, companies can quickly reap the benefits of competitive marketplace. In addition, employees can become a great source of creative and innovative ideas for future endeavors. In this rapidly changing environment, managers should reveal high levels of creativity in offering a plethora of motivational incentives to employees. Increasing employee enthusiasm, motivation and personal commitment remain one of the most enduring and challenging tasks that managers must tackle. Present paper addresses the issue of motivation among Information Technologies (further in the text IT) professionals in fostering innovation. The aim of the paper is to determine the role and significance of motivation in encouraging innovative and creative activities among IT professionals working in the small and medium sized enterprises. The objective of the research is to find the linkage between IT employee’s motivation and their contribution to innovation.</span></p> Svetlana Gribanova Ketevan Rizhamadze Anna Ābeltiņa Copyright (c) 2020 Svetlana Gribanova, Ketevan Rizhamadze, Anna Ābeltiņa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-09-30 2020-09-30 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.524 The Role of Government and Governance in Human Development: A Study of very High Development Economies https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/546 <p>The study of human development has witnessed spectacular attention across the globe. The components of the Human Development Index (HDI) such as life expectancy at birth, literacy rate, and GNP per-capita income are the outcome of achieving appropriate economic growth of the nation provided that there are effective government expenditures in the economy. In the era of fiscal consolidation and neo-liberalism, it becomes seemingly essential to revisit the governance role in building human capital, especially in nations with very high human development. The study employed the data of nineteen very high human development countries as per the United Nations Human Development Report, across 2000 to 2016. The data has been collected from the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) database. The study incorporates the role of government expenditure on various socio-economic aspects like education, health, and the military in the development of human capital, along with the role of Governance. The study deduced the facilitating role of Governance in the developmental process, even in countries with very high human development.</p> Monika Gaur Ravi Kant Copyright (c) 2020 Monika Gaur, Ravi Kant http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-05 2020-10-05 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.546 Financial Feasibility Study for New Investment in New Digital Product of PT Telkom Indonesia (Case Study: SKP Project) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/558 <p>SKP is an integrated stock management system application. With SKP, PT Telkom Indonesia provides solutions to business owners in the form of connectivity and services. Proper planning of business strategy is needed based on a proper feasibility study, so SKP project can generate economic benefits for PT Telkom Indonesia and all the stakeholders. SKP has not calculated the financial projections for it to proceed to the market and meet PT Telkom Indonesia regulation. A financial feasibility study would measure the revenue projection, and cost structure such as cash flow, balance sheet, and income statement projection. At the end of this model, there will be a conclusion of the feasibility of the project using internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), and payback period (PP) as parameters. If the project is feasible, there will be a sensitivity risk analysis to find out the most sensitive variable. According to feasibility test result, it is concluded that the SKP project can benefit PT Telkom Indonesia. This can be seen from the FCFF calculation which results in a positive NPV with a value of Rp 5.229.648.128, and IRR of 67,26% which is greater than the project WACC of 17,94%. From the payback period requirements set by PT Telkom Indonesia, the project is estimated to have a PP of 2,02 years. The result of SKP's financial projections is also supported by Monte Carlo simulations which show the effect of changes to influential variables, with simulation results show a possible NPV&gt; 0 of 87,53%.</p> Fadel Mohammad Islam Ahmad Danu Prasetyo Copyright (c) 2020 Fadel Mohammad Islam, Ahmad Danu Prasetyo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-07 2020-10-07 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.558 Effect of Integrated Employee Training on Sustainable Mobility of Matatu Saccos in Public Transport Sector in Nairobi County, Kenya https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/284 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This study was carried out to assess the effect of integrated employee training on sustainable mobility of Matatu Sacco in public transport sector in Nairobi County. Training in transport sector is of paramount importance as it makes the drivers more responsible which in turn reduces road accident, vehicle maintenance and enhances proper handling of passengers and creates an improved public image for the sector. The study comprised of 177 Sacco Managers representing all the Matatu Sacco registered by NTSA in Nairobi County in 2015.NTSA, 2015. The study was guided by positivism philosophy where census was applied and adopted mixed method research design. Data from the Sacco Managers was collected using a structured questionnaire, while an interview schedule was used for the representatives from both the MoT and VOA. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and the results revealed that influence of integrated employee training, had significant influence on sustainable mobility of Matatu Saccos in public transport sector in Nairobi County, Kenya. The results also revealed that there has been training of simple technical skills, such as, maintenance of vehicles and first aid to the drivers. It can be concluded that training drivers on safety improves public image in Matatu Saccos. Recommendations can be made that it is important to conduct training needs assessment before training employees to ensure missing gaps or mismatch on the skills are well filled or captured to ensure training objectives are achieved effectively. This would enable both the ministry of transport and Sacco management to develop competent training programs for its employees.</span></p> Priscilla Wambui Muhoro Anita Wanjugu Wachira David Kiarie Mburu Copyright (c) 2020 Priscilla Wambui Muhoro, Anita Wanjugu Wachira, David Kiarie Mburu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-08 2020-10-08 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.284 An Estimation of the Impact of Financial Intermediation on the Economic Growth of Ghana; With Emphasis on the Private Sector https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/529 <p>It is an undeniable and acceptable fact that all economic agents namely; individuals, corporations and governments require money to meet their specific needs which may differ from one economic agent to another. The monetary activities of these economic agents which have to be financed by someone else exert an overall effect on the entire economy. The challenge here, therefore, is about the availability of banks’ credit and its allocation to the various economic agents as well as the economic results they deliver to Ghana’s economy. Thus, the basic issue which the study sought to dwell on is ‘how commercial banks’ credit allocated to the private sector impacts on the growth of the entire economy of Ghana’. The study conducted is exploratory in nature and the approach was purely quantitative making use of secondary data relating to financial intermediation and economic growth spanning from 1993 to 2018. Purposive sampling technique was used in selecting data and its source. To estimate the parameters in the econometric model stated in the study using times series data, Auto-Regressive Distributive Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to co-integration developed by Pesaran et al. was employed. Overall, the empirical evidence obtained indicates that there is a negative long-run relationship between domestic banks credit to the private sector and Ghana’s economic growth, though statistically insignificant at 5% significance level. In the short-run however, the negative relationship between the two variables is statistically significant at the same significance level.</p> Asiamah Yeboah Copyright (c) 2020 Asiamah Yeboah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-09 2020-10-09 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.529 Design of Organizational Structure and Job Description for Human Capital Management Strategy for Small Medium Enterprise in Creative Industry: RA Planner Company Case https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/544 <p>RA Planner is a publisher company that focusing themselves in developing product design to produce a journal and planner. They able to sell 23.000 planner in 2018 and generate almost 2.1 billion rupiah in their 4 years after established. However, the human resources in RA Planner starting to fail keeping up with the rapid growth because their lack of structuration and formal organizational design, resulting their inability to achieve target in 2019. This study uses a mixed method research model, consist of interview to current employee and ex-employee of RA Planner after the decision of firing employee have been made in January 2020 and the conversion of said interview to become quantitative data using BARS methods. Both of this methods are carried out to get the HCM maturity level that consist of 5 dimension that can help determine company maturity state and predict the company performance, and the difference between business process mapping of the company compare to PCF APQC using gap analysis to create RACI Matrix. Then, based on HCM maturity level and RACI Matrix, the author proposes a new organizational structure and job description that can ultimately corresponding with RA Planner need to further answer company strategic initiative and solve the current issues that emerge in the company.</p> Bagja Auzan Karami Aurik Gustomo Copyright (c) 2020 Bagja Auzan Karami, Aurik Gustomo http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-10 2020-10-10 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.544 Construction Time Overrun Related Risks as a Determinant of Completion of Public Private Partnership Projects in Kenya. Case Study of Sondu Miriu Hydropower Project https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/493 <p>In development projects especially those of construction in nature, working within the time schedules is paramount and normally an issue of conflict. Emergence of Public Private Partnership to remedy delays in project has not been that perfect but provides a platform for risk sharing between stakeholders. This study borrowed on contingency theory to investigate the extent to which time overrun related risks impact on project delivery through PPP models. In the null, the hypothesis that time overrun related risks do not have an influence on project delivery was tested using entire management team of the completed construction project sampled randomly to give 71 participants. Questionnaires and interview schedules were applied to obtain research data. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used in analysis where regression analysis was used to determine variable effects. The null hypothesis was tested at 95% confidence level and found that there was a strong negative correlation between the variables, r (38) = -0.975 (p&lt;.05) which implies that construction time overrun related risks significantly influence project delivery. Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected. The study recommends that stakeholders in PPPs should come together at initial stages to ensure that project drawings are made and approved in time to facilitate speedy execution of the overall project and avoid unnecessary design changes by involving all stakeholders to reduce time overrun.</p> Pamela Akinyi Oyieyo Charles M. Rambo Ann Ndiritu Copyright (c) 2020 Pamela Akinyi Oyieyo, Charles M. Rambo, Ann Ndiritu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-13 2020-10-13 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.493 Succession Planning at Private Schools in Addis Ababa https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/547 <p>Organizations in any industry benefit from clearly developed succession plans. Succession planning is not as pervasive in schools as it should be. In Ethiopia, teachers are either leaving the teaching profession or move from one school to another and join other occupations every year creating a huge gap in leadership development. To this end, schools and school administrators should proactively plan and incorporate succession planning in their strategy as well as daily operation. Using quantitative data collected from 283 teachers from a total of 3189 teachers in 146 Secondary and Preparatory Schools in Addis Ababa. This research tried to assess the succession planning practices of those private schools. Mean and the standard deviation was used to analyze the participant response while a One-Sample t-test was used to ascertain the statistical significance of the mean values. The result however suggests that succession planning at the sampled schools is done partially with mixed results. Even though participants accept the importance of succession planning, they indicated that talent identification and talent development are not done properly. The retention of talent however is done relatively well. It is therefore recommended that private schools in Addis Ababa introduce a proper succession planning program and make sure mechanisms of talent identification, development, and retention in place.</p> A. T. Haile Copyright (c) 2020 A. T. Haile http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-15 2020-10-15 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.547 Is War Good for The United States: A Comparative Look at The U.S. and Ancient Rome Between Times of War and Conflict and the Economic Implications on Economic Well Being and Employment During Times of Peace Versus Conflict https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/564 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">“War is an ugly thing, but not the ugliest of things: the decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth a war, is much worse. This research analyzes existing data to review the impact on unemployment in the U.S. following each conflict and war it has been involved in. There is a comparison drawn to the Roman Economy and its dependence on war to and the economy of the U.S. and the causes of its ability to have economic success and the impact on unemployment of U.S. workers as a result.</span></p> Steven V. Cates Jason V. Jackson Copyright (c) 2020 Steven V. Cates, Jason V. Jackson http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-17 2020-10-17 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.564 Analysis of Service Quality Towards Patient Satisfaction (Comparative Study of Patients Using Telemedicine Application and Face to Face Consultation in Healthcare) https://www.ejbmr.org/index.php/ejbmr/article/view/516 <p>The world today knows the use of technology in more areas of life than ever. The invention of health technology enables health workers to utilize telecommunication devices in delivering care, easing access to healthcare anywhere, anytime. Telemedicine Application is one of the rapidly developing health applications in Indonesia. This study aimed to analyze the association between quality of services, including tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy, and patient satisfaction in Telemedicine Application users compared to conventional health services (face-to-face). Primary data were obtained from 100 respondents who had received healthcare either from Telemedicine Application or face-to-face (conventional) throughout 2019. Data analysis used path analysis and the Wilcoxon test. This study found that service quality, both in Telemedicine Application and conventional care, influenced patient satisfaction. In subjects using Telemedicine Application, reliability and responsiveness did not significantly influence patient satisfaction. Whereas in patients receiving conventional care, tangibility, responsiveness, and empathy were not significantly influential to patient satisfaction. Conventional patient satisfaction is significantly higher compared to Telemedicine Application patient satisfaction.</p> Tamara Tantarto Dadang Kusnadi Hadyana Sukandar Copyright (c) 2020 Tamara Tantarto, Dadang Kusnadi, Hadyana Sukandar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2020-10-19 2020-10-19 5 5 10.24018/ejbmr.2020.5.5.516